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Rocks and Rock Formations!

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Jeremy Favaro

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Rocks and Rock Formations!

Minerals
ROCKS AND ROCK FORMATIONS
Jeremy Favaro, Ben Gorthy, and Umair Shahzad
Igneous Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks and Sediments
Metamorphic Rock
Rocks in General
Examples
Igneous or sedimentary rocks that have changed ( metamorphism)
Are not common on Earth's surface
2 types of metamorphism : contact and regional
Formations
Sedimentary Rocks
Lithification -
Process in which sediments change into solid rock
Sedimentary rock -
Rocks formed by lithification of deposited materials
Formation through
Sedimentation
Processes that causes sediments to accumulate or minerals to precipitate
Main sedimentary rocks (below)

Siltstone
Sandstone
Sedimentary Rock Types
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Composed of small pre-existing rocks and minerals
Made from silicate and rock fragments made by deposit from moving fluids
Usually water
Mainly conglomerates, sandstones, and mudrocks
Conglomerate
The Wave, Arizona
Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks
Created when an organism uses dissolved materials in their body
Common examples include:
Limestone - formed by skeletons of things like coral and molluscs
Coal - plants bring in CO2 from atmosphere and use it in their tissue
Chert - siliceous skeletons from microscopic organisms
Limestone
Coal
Chert
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
When minerals in a solution supersaturate and inorganically precipitate
Most often form in dried water bodies
Commonly composed of:
Halite - NaCl aka salt
Gypsum - CaSO4·2H2O aka calcium sulfate dihydrate used in fertilizer, cement, tofu, and MEAD!
Halite
Gypsum
Other Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks formed by uncommon processes
Formed by process such as:
Pyroclastic Flow - Fast moving current of hot gas and rock
Volcanic Breccias - Blocks of lava in an ash matrix
Sediments
Sediments -
Solid natural materials coming from rock or biological process which are carried and deposited by agents of denudation
(Secret) Agents of Denudation -
The processes that erode rocks
Fluvial - Water
Aeolian - Wind
Mass movement
Glacial - Ice

Fluvial Process
Aeolian Process
Sediments Continued
Sediment Process
Weathering -
Breaking down of rocks into sediments
Erosion -
Sediments removed from original location and brought to a new one
Transportation -
Moving of sediments
Deposition -
Settling sediments in new location
Just Sediment Things
Lithos
is Greek for rock
Sediments become sedimentary rock through
lithification
Two types of lithification:
Cementation -
When the minerals precipitate from the sediment to bind particles
Compaction -
When pressure and weight cause sediments to consolidate
Sediments are classified by size based on the
Phi Scale
Volcanic Block
Pyroclastic Flow
Pompeii
Earth's Composition
Rocks in the mantle are oxides
Garnets, diamonds, spinel, olivine, etc.
Main ROCKS found in the crust:
64.7% Igneous rock
7.9% Sedimentary rock and Sediments
27.4% Metamorphic rock
Surface is approximately:
25% Igneous rock
75% Sedimentary rock and Sediments
0% Metamorphic (almost none)
Measurements by VOLUME
Rock Cycle
Magma
Cools into igneous
Sediment
Compacts or cements into sedimentary
Igneous rock
Can melt back to magma
Weathers and erodes into sediments
Becomes metamorphic with heat and pressure
Sedimentary rock
Weathers and erodes into sediments
Becomes metamorphic with heat and pressure
Metamorphic rock
Can melt back to magma
Weathers and erodes into sediments
Mountains
Caves
Cenotes
Mesas
Canyons
Devils Tower - Igneous
Wulingyuan - Sedimentary
Seneca Rocks - Metamorphic
Sailing Stones of Death Valley - Special Request by Mr. Hill
BaROCK Obama
ROCKing chair
Party ROCK
ROCKy road
ROCK lobster
ROCK star
ROCK paper scissors
Thank you for listening!


Have a day!


Any questions or
QUARRIES?
GNEISS
Spanish senote from Yucatec Maya
dzonot
or
ts'onot
Cenote -
A natural pit caused by dissolution of rock, usually limestone, that exposes groundwater beneath
May or may not be linked to active cave system
Under generic term of sinkholes
Most in Mexico in Yucatán Peninsula, some in Australia, Canada, USA, and Zimbabwe
In Mexico, lie around rim of Chicxulub
Impact affected groundwater circulation

Wulingyuan, Hunan, China
Over 3000 quartzite sandstone pillars
Many over 200 metres
Inspiration for
Avatar
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Contains waterfalls, caves, and natural bridges
Xianrenqiao - Bridge of the Immortals
A Rocky Introduction
A rock is a conglomerate of two or more minerals

The ROCK
ROCKY Balboa
More than just cooled lava
Geological phenomenon
Racetrack Playa, Death Valley, California
Stones up to 700 pounds leave trails in the dirt but nobody pushed them!!!
Some move sporadically
Many hypothesis
Intrusive
Magma cools in cracks in the crust
Forms Sills, Dykes, and Batholiths
Extrusive
Lava on the surface cools
Magma explodes into the atmosphere and cools
Formation
ROCK 'n' Roll
Why Igneous Rocks
They make up most of the crust
Information about the mantle
Event sequencing
Plate movements
Host mineral deposits
Classification
Texture
Intrusive vs. extrusive
Chemical
Not used by geologists
Mineralogical
Felsic (Granite)
Intermediate (Diorite)
Mafic (Basalt)
Ultramafic (Peridotite)
Contact Metamorphism
Magma is injected into surrounding rock
Greater changes at smaller distances
Regional Metamorphism
Used for rocks over a large area
Metamorphism due to the depth they are at
Natural opening in the ground large enough to a human to enter
Many different kinds of caves ( depends on creation)
Speleology is the study of caves, relates to speleothem and spelunking
Deep, narrow valleys in the Earth's crust
definition of "largest canyon" is imprecise
Box Canyons and Slot Canyons
A land mark in West Virginia
Only true peak on the East Cost
Large pieces of quartzite
Solid and stable at room temperature
Ordered atomic structure
Natural
Usually abiogenic
Minerals are not rocks...
Rocks are groups of minerals and non-minerals
Rocks have no specific chemical composition
Over 4900 varieties
Rock Forming Minerals
150 minerals of significance
Major rock forming minerals
Quartz
Feldspars
Micas
Amphiboles
Pyroxenes
Olivines
Calcite
Minerals? Ore something more?
Ores are minerals with a high [ ] of a certain element.
Ore Formation: Ore Genesis
All theories involve 3 components
Source
Transport
Trap
Iron
Derived from ancient sediments
Atmospheric conditions favoured the creation of deposits
Weathering and erosion creates placer deposits
Gold
Orogeny and plate tectonics underlies gold ore genesis
Lode gold deposits
Made up of quartz veins
Water transports gold
Intrusive gold
Relies on intrusive igneous rock formation
Uranium
Sourced from radioactive granite
Also found in coal
Acidic conditions create a uranium solute
Gems
Minerals with ornamental value
Rubies and sapphires are essentially the same

Traditional classification
Precious and semi-precious
Gemologists use chemistry
Also classified by crystal structure
Different groups, species, and varieties
No universal definition
Three types
Volcanic mountains
Fold mountains
Block mountains
Plateaus
Flat topped mountains
Layered rock is uplifted
Some layers weather and erode quickly
The top layers being eroded away forms mesas
Igneous intrusion
Intruded 40.5 million years ago
Layers of sedimentary rock were eroded away
Similar to mesas but without seismic activity
Possibly a volcanic plug
Mineral 1
Mineral 2
Sandman
The Summit of Bad Puns
Full transcript