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Kaz Thompson

on 29 July 2015

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Transcript of Principles

Pre - Screening, Consultations
The goals of testing are to find out the clients
current level of fitness that are Specific to their
Pre -screening consults are great at
finding out the clients current level
of fitness, likes, dislikes, barriers and
support they require
In this process we set about to design the program, it must be tailored towards the clients SMART goals
Planning and Programming
Time Frame
Specific - I want to lose 10 kilos of weight from my bum and thighs by Christmas
Measurable - How can you measure this a change in my shirt size? Actual fitness test result
Attainable - are there any barriers preventing this from happening? Injuries?
Realistic - can you climb mount Everest next week - are there the right conditions to do this.
Time frame - when, and how long - 6months ect
Progressive overload
Hard days and easy days
allows the body time to recover
and grow
Diminishing returns
no matter how hard I train I cannot seem to get any improvement
Reversibility and Ceiling
Clients need variety to add spice into their training
Variety and Interference
The physiological system need variety so it can adapt and grow
If there are too many training components going on- the body cannot adapt to all
Ill get bored if you give me the same
program every week!
weight loss
We have to know these well to prescribe exercise correctly
We can use these principles
for any athlete to joe bloggs
Understanding each cleint
is the key to success - remember
a good history + testing + planning
= Great results!!!!
Genetically you can train only to a certain point - any more improvement requires a change in FITT
Principles of Training
Over load
Progressive overload
Principles of Training
Are essential for writing amazing programs
that are specific, individual that meets the clients
own requirements of training to succeed!!!!!!!!
Progressive overload
1. Progressive Loading (“Overload”)
Biological systems can adapt to loads that are higher than the demands of normal daily activity. Training loads must be increased gradually, however, to allow the body to adapt and to avoid injury (system failure due to overloading). Varying the type, volume, and intensity of the training load allows the body an opportunity to
recover, and to over-compensate. Loading must continue to increase incrementally as adaptation occurs, otherwise the training effect will plateau and further improvement will not occur
2. Adaptation
Adaptations to the demands of training occur gradually, over long periods of time. Efforts to accelerate the process may lead to injury, illness, or “over training”. Many adaptive changes reverse when training ceases. Conversely, an inadequate training load will not provide an adequate stimulus, and a compensatory response will not occur.
Energy pathways, enzyme systems, muscle fiber types, and neuro-muscular responses adapt specifically to the type of training to which they are subjected. For example, strength training has little effect on endurance. A well-rounded training programme should contain a variety of elements (aerobic, anaerobic, speed, strength, flexibility), and involve all of the major muscle groups in
order to prevent imbalances and avoid injuries.
Need to consider
Movement pattern
Speed of movement
Energy system
Body position
muscle length
type of contraction
pre- contraction
Research investigating strength and performance improvements after a period of weight training has shown strength improved most notably in exercises where body position was similar to the training exercise.
, strength gained by training in one body position may not transfer to strength improvements in another (Rasch & Morehouse, 1957; Wilson et al., 1996).
Body Position
Joint Angles , Muscles lengths & ROM
Graves et al. (1989) used two training groups (Dynamic)
knee extensors 120-60 degrees of flexion
knee extensors 60-0 degrees of flexion
Each group performed slightly better in their specific training angle range.
Therefore, strength changes with resistance training are specific to the joint angles (or muscle lengths) at which training is performed
Type of Contraction
Adaptations to strength training appear to be specific to the type of contraction (i.e. concentric or eccentric) performed in training (Hortobagyi et al., 1996, 2000; Smith & Ruthorford, 1995).
Generally, eccentric training leads to better improvements in eccentric strength than concentric training. The opposite is true for concentric training.
Velocity of movement
Smith and Melton (1981) showed that subjects who trained their knee extensors and flexors at fast speeds improved their vertical jump (5%), broad jump (9%), and 40-yard sprint time (10%).
Subjects who trained at slow speeds improved their vertical jump (4%) only.

Increases in fast-speed dynamic performance has been shown greater with high-speed (30% 1RM) training and plyometric training than slow resistance training (Wilson et al., 1993).
Other Factors limiting productivity
Neuromuscular skill
Psychological factors
Pain and fear of pain
Injury and fear of injury
Adapted from Siff, M. c. Supertraining. Denver US, 2004.
Reference List:
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in runners: a valid sign of overtraining? Phys. and Sportsmed. 13(8):77-86,
2. Flynn, M. G., F. X. Pizza, J. B. Boone, Jr., F. F. Andres, T. A. Michaud, and J.
AR. Rodriguez-Zayas. Indices of training stress during competitive running and
swimming seasons. Int. Journal of Sports Medicine 15:21-26, 1994.
3. Halson, S. L., and A. E. Jeukendrup. Does over-training exist? An analysis of
overreaching and overtraining research. Sports Medicine 34(14):967-981, 2004.
4. Hooper S. I., L. T. McKinnon, et al. Markers for monitoring overtraining and
recovery. Med. and Sci. in Sports and Exercise 27(1):106-112, 1995.
5. Kellmann, M. (ed.). Enhancing Recovery. Preventing Underperformance in
Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2002.
6. Kreider, R., A. C. Fry, and M. O’Toole (eds.). Overtraining in Sport.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998.
7. Morgan, W. P., D. R. Brown, J. S. Raglin, P. J. O’Connor, and K. A. Ellickson.
Psychological monitoring of over-training and staleness. British Journal of
Sports Medicine 21:107-114, 1987.
8. Nieman, D. C., et al. Effects of long-endurance running on immune system
parameters and lymphocyte function in experienced marathoners. Int. Journal
of Sports Med. 5:317-323, 1989.
9. Uusitalo, A. L. T. Overtraining. Making a difficult diagnosis and implementing
targeted treatment. Phys. and Sportsmed. 29(5):35-50, 2001
10. Siff, M, C. (2004) Supertraining. Denver USA
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