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Transcript of WH-QUESTIONS
request specific information
in social interaction
for getting directions
in seeking explanations
for eliciting vocabulary
Two fundamental issues:
variety of constituents that can be queried with wh-questions
two basic word orders for unmarked wh-questions
While yes/no questions query an entire proposition, wh-questions are used when the speaker is missing one specific piece of information.
English wh-questions, despite their usefulness, are not acquired especially early.
Variety of constituents:
Object of the preposition
Underlying a wh-question is the assumption that some event/action has taken place or some state of affairs exists.
In the first sentence, it is the subject that is being queried.
While in the second sentence, it is the object NP that is being queried.
Who wrote a memo to his boss before he quit?
What did Lee write to his boss before he quit?
Subject wh-questions VERSUS
If there is no operator present, one must be added by means of the operator addition rule.
If an auxiliary verb is present, then it will move when subject-operator inversion is applied.
wh-questions in which some constituent in the subject is being queried are simpler syntactically than those in which something in the predicate is being queried.
Where are you going?
If a determiner or intensifier is the focus a wh-question word, the constituent it modifies must be moved to the front of the string along with the determiner or intensifier.
When the object of the preposition is the unknown element and wh-fronting is applied, the preposition may either be left behind or be moved up to the front of the string along with the NP.
when the question word is the object of a preposition within another prepositional phrase, the entire prepositional complex must be fronted
Whose boss did Lee write the memo to?
How diligently had Lee worked at the firm?
The Meaning of Wh-Questions
Choosing a Wh-question word
emphatic questions with ever
The Use of Wh- Questions
yes/no questions vs. wh-questions