**Myers' Psychology for AP, 2nd Edition**

**Unit 2: Research Methods**

(8-10% of AP Exam)

(8-10% of AP Exam)

**Module 5: The Scientific Method and Description**

Module 6: Correlation and Experimentation

Module 7: Statistical Reasoning and Everyday Life

Module 4: The Need for Psychological Science

I. Why science-based answers are more valid than those based on intuition or common sense

II. The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble

Schacter's Affiliation Study

Does Self-Confidence Intimidate Others?

The Monty Hall Problem

Hindsight Bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

Example?

Overconfidence

Human beings innate tendency to think we know more than we do. Tend to be more confident than right.

Tendency to perceive order in random events

Gambler's fallacy

Module 8: Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

James Randi

Theory

Based upon my 20 years of teaching and working with kids, I think that girls are happier than boys. In part, my theory is based upon the number of times I have seen girls and boys smile at school.

Hypothesis

Girls smile more than boys

How could we test this?

Operational Definition Activity

Replication

Types of Research

Case Study

Naturalistic Observation

Survey

GPA at Southridge

Sampling bias

Population

Random Sample

Correlation

a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other.

Correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two variables (from -1.0 to +1.0)

*strength determined by absolute value

Positive Correlation

No Correlation

Negative Correlation

CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION!!!

Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove one

Illusory Correlation - the perception of a relationship where none exists.

Examples

1. A person catches many fish in one place at a lake. After that day, the person believes that the place where he or she caught many fish is a place where there are more fish than at other places at the lake. However, it is possible that it is actually just a chance event.

2. On a vacation, a person travels to a city that she or he had not visited before and a few people there are rude to the person. The person concludes that the people in this city are generally ruder than people in many other cities. However, this may just reflect random events.

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable).

How might I use each of the following types of research to test my hypothesis that girls smile more than boys?

Independent Variable (IV) - the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

Dependent Variable (DV) - the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

Confounding Variable - a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

Experimental group - in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

Control group - in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

ACTIVITY - Identifying components of an experiment

Random assignment

assigning participants to experimental or control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the groups.

Placebo Effect - experimental results caused by expectations alone

CAN SHOW CAUSE-EFFECT!!

Measures of Central Tendency

(Descriptive Statistics)

Mean, Median, Mode

Measures of Variation

Range

Standard Deviation

Inferential Statistics

Statistical Significance

Does behavior depend on one's culture and gender?

Ethical Guidelines

Animals

Humans

American Psychological Association (APA)

Guidelines for Human Research

1. Informed consent

2. Protect from harm and discomfort

3. Maintain confidentiality

4. Debriefing

Skewed Distribution

Normal Curve (Bell Curve)

When Is an Observed Difference Reliable?

1. Representative samples are better than biased samples

2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable

3. More cases are better than fewer

numerical data that allow one to generalize – to infer from sample data the probability of something being true to a population.

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

p < 0.05

Less than 5% chance the results of an experiment were due to sampling error.

the difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution.

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

Facilitated Communication Activity

Discussing psychological disorders / disabilities

Serious matter

Anonymity

None of use is a psychologist / psychiatrist

DSM - 5 & Changing terminology

Dice and the Bell Curve Activity