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Einstein's Theories of Relativity

Einstein's two different Theories of Relativity, the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity
by

Seth Berman

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of Einstein's Theories of Relativity

Einstein's Theories of Relativity By Seth Berman To Start... We need to understand relativity First off, there has been a lot of different theories concerning relativity made over the many years of science. We are only going to be focusing on Einstein's two theories and a little bit about Galilean Relativity. Galilean relativity basically says that motion is relative.
Take for example a spaceship with a person inside it that is cruising along at 2000 meters per a second. as long as the ship is not accelerating the person inside the ship can not tell that he is moving. In short the motion of the ship disappears. But if you were observing the spaceship from the outside you would say that it is moving at 2000 meters per a second. See? Motion is completely relative Now that we understand Galilean Relativity we can move on to Einstein's theories of relativity (Because you need to know Galilean Relativity to understand the Special and General Theory of Relativity.) Lets start with the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein made the Special Theory of Relativity because when you deal with light, (Which is the fastest known thing in the universe) regular relativity doesn't work anymore. It doesn't work because no matter where you were in the universe, the speed of light was constant And according to relativity that shouldn't be able to happen. In 1905, Elbert Einstein fixed it all with his Special Theory of Relativity. He stated that the speed of light can remain the same because of two main reasons The first is time dilation. The Special Theory of Relativity stated that He said that the speed of light can remain constant because of two main reason. The first reason the speed of light can remain constant is time dilation. It works like this. Imagine you have a clock that works by bouncing a laser between two mirrors and whenever the laser hits the bottom one the clock moves foreword. Now put that clock on a spaceship. The spaceship is moving at a steady speed in a straight line. Finally imagine there is a person named Pete inside the ship and a person named Kathy outside of it. If Kathy were to look inside the ship she would see the light be bouncing in a diagonal path between the two mirrors. But Pete would still see the light beam bouncing in a up and down path. And because speed is practically a measure of how far an object goes over a certain amount of time, and the path of light that Kathy sees is going a longer distance, the speeds of the two different light beams must be different. But as we just learned, that can't be true. So what is going on? Time Dilation is what is happening. Time itself is actually slowing down for Pete so that the speed of light can be the same. kkk kk Weird, Right? The General Theory of Relativity
is even more wierd This theory deals with acceleration, which the Special Theory of Relativity can't deal with (The General Theory of Relativity deals with gravity). Also, it relies on one more
scientific theory, the Equivalence
Principle. Which says that
acceleration can pretty much count
as a gravitational field. The General Theory of Relativity
shows that acceleration dilates time
a lot more then just traveling at high
speeds. The second reason the speed light
is constant is space contraction. Basically, space itself gets shortened. Which can change the speed of an object
because like a said, speed is a measure of
how far an object goes over a certain
amount of time. Along with the Special Theory of Relativity,
Einstein also made the General Theory of
Relativity, which was made in 1915. It does this because if you were to accelerate in a rocket ship, and shine a light across it, the light would curve (we will get to why in a little bit) which would cause it to take a longer path across the spaceship then if you were to shine it across the ship without it accelerating. Therefore, the speed would be different. But again, that doesn't happen because of time dilation. Also, because of the Equivalence Principle,
we can gather that gravity causes time dialation
too. We now know that gravity and acceleration cause time dilation. But we still don't know why light would curve in the first place. I will now explain that. First off, light always takes the shortest path
between two objects. So that must mean that when the light beam curved it still must have been taking the shortest path. But how can a curve be the shortest path? It can be the shortest path because when something accelerates, space gets curved. This means that a gravitational field also curves space. I know that we were just explaining why light would curve but from just those two facts we can actually make a huge speculation. Gravity is not a force but a curvature of space which causes objects to "roll" towards the mass that is causing the curvature in space. (see my demonstration) We are almost done learning about relativity. There is just one more concept I want to address. E=mc2 was a consequence of the Special Theory
of Relativity when Einstein realized that for his theory to work energy has to directly relate to mass. Well we are done learning about the marvels of Einstein's two amazing Theories. I hope you have learned a lot. Citation
“Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.” 2012. The History Channel website. Nov 15 2012, 1:33 http://www.history.comhttp://www.history.com/videos/einstein-einsteins-general-theory-of-relativity.

Jones, Andres Z., and Daniel Robbins. "Http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/einsteins-special-relativity.html." Theory Of Relativity. Dummies, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.allaboutscience.org/theory-of-relativity.htm>.

ScienceTV. "Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Made Easy." YouTube. ScienceTV, 28 July 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=30KfPtHec4s>.

ScienceTV. "Space-Time And The Speed Of Light | Einstein's Relativity." YouTube. ScienceTV, 05 Aug. 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvZfx7iwq94>.

ScienceTV. "Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Made Easy." YouTube. ScienceTV, 28 July 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=30KfPtHec4s>.

ScienceTV. "Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Made Easy." YouTube. ScienceTV, 28 July 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=30KfPtHec4s>.

Gibilisco, Stan. "Astronomy Demystified (Demystified) [Paperback]." Astronomy Demystified (Demystified): Stan Gibilisco: 9780071384278: Amazon.com: Books. Mc Graw Hill, 2003. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.amazon.com/Astronomy-Demystified-Stan-Gibilisco/dp/0071384278>.

Manning, Philip. Science Foundations Theory of Relativity. New York: Chelsea House, 2012. Print. Whoa! What is E=mc2? It stands for energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. Which relies on the fact that the speed of light is
constant no matter where you are and that physics don't
change.
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