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Sleep and Dreaming
Transcript of Sleep and Dreaming
Physiological vs. Psychological Theory
REM and NREM
Stages of Sleep
we dream in order to exercise various neural connections
may affect certain types of learning
dreaming allows us to sort through problems
based on idea that require a lot of attention
Combination of two Theories
repressed longings and desires
dreams allow us to reflect on waking selves
Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley
dreams result of electrical brain impulses that pulled imagery from memory
minds try to make sense of imagery= activation- synthesis hypothesis
only way of comprehending images is by viewing dreams metaphorically, symbolically
YET- how our forebrains choose to analyze this tells a lot about ourselves.
minds working on deep-seated problems through non-threatening material
Cognitive Neuroscience of Dreaming
Motivational Command Center
Not Enough Sleep
Miss 1 Night
Miss 2 Nights
Miss 3 Nights
irritable- slow down or wired
difficulty concentrating, increased mistakes
hallucinations, lose grasp of reality
reflects brain activity. increased during wakefulness and declines during sleep
Sleep is Good
Organize and Archive Memories
Exploding Head Syndrome
REM Behavior Disorder
Sleep Disruption and Deprivation
A child cannot function at his or her best without the right amount of sleep each night
It is estimated that 85% of children and adolescents are sleep deprived.
Full-term birth 16–18 hours
1 year 15 hours
2 years 13–14 hours
4 years 12 hours
10 years 8–10 hours
Mid adolescence 8 1/2 hours
Later adolescence 7–8 hours
Children, like adults, may be more alert in the morning or evening.
The forbidden zone is a moment when an individual is most awake, where it is almost impossible to fall asleep.
Sleep deprivation may be mistaken as a psychological disorder
Sleep disturbance may be an early warning sign of a serious psychological or physical disorder
Consequences of Sleep Deprivation for Children
Dream recall increases with age
Dream content develops with cognitive abilities
Good and bad dreams
Early childhood fears and insecurities
Application in Therapy
Identifying sleep disturbance
Recognizing possible sleep disorders
Presenting treatment approaches
Address presenting problem
Change sleeping patterns
Dreams may symbolize or reveal fears and problems of waking life
Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep
-Known as Quiet Sleep, this type has the least amount of brain activity.
-More mundane dreams occur during this stage.
Rapid Eye Movement
-Known as Active Sleep, this type has about the same amount of brain activity as we do when we’re awake during the day.
-More vivid and intense dreams occur during this stage.
-Muscle paralysis occurs (except for eye movement).
-This type of sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep due to the heightened brain activity and the physical immobility.
Stage 1 (NREM)
Stage 2 (NREM)
This is a period of light sleep during which polysomnographic readings show intermittent peaks and valleys, or positive and negative waves.
These waves indicate spontaneous periods of muscle tone mixed with periods of muscle relaxation.
The heart rate slows and the body temperature decreases. At this point, the body prepares to enter deep sleep.
Sleep Spindles - rapid/rhythmic brain activity
Stages 3 and 4 (NREM)
These are deep sleep stages, with stage 4 being more intense than Stage 3.
These stages are known as slow-wave, or Delta Wave Sleep.
If aroused from sleep during these stages, a person may feel disoriented for a few minutes.
Developmental Counseling and Therapy
DCT Model (Developed by Ivey)
Stage 5 (REM)
REM Sleep begins after the first four stages, roughly 90 minutes into sleep, and typically lasts about 10 minutes. The cycle is then repeated.
Increased brain activity. Similar to being awake
The REM stage lasts longer as it reoccurs.
The last REM stage can last upwards of one hour. Typically, this cycle of sleep will occur four to fives times throughout the night.
Based on an interpretation of Piaget's developmental stages
Evaluation of cognitive-emotional developmental style to select interventions and facilitate growth
Organized to answer 3 questions
Includes psychosocial, environmental, and cultural contributors to poor sleep
Allison Collazo, Melvin Felix, Jonathan Huffman, Jennifer Shenk, Sarah Thomas
Weaving sleep improvement into the therapy process in the essence of Clinical Sleep Counseling
Relaxation and Biofeedback
Polysomnography (sleep readings) shows a reduction in activity between wakefulness and stage 1 sleep. Theta Waves - high amplitude, slow waves
The eyes are closed during Stage 1 sleep. One can be awakened without difficulty, however, if aroused from this stage of sleep, a person may feel as if he or she has not slept.
Stage 1 may last for five to 10 minutes. Many may notice the feeling of falling during this stage of sleep, which may cause a sudden muscle contraction (called hypnic myoclonia).
Focus on Breath
Involves training clients to control physiological processes
(muscle tension, blood pressure, heart rate)
Motivational Command Center
Motor System Blocked
Table 3. Average sleep duration at different ages
1959 to 1992
1975 to 2006
1,460 a year
1 1/2 to 3 hours
The Content Analysis of Dreams