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Transcript of Cultural Norms
Behavior Cultural dimensions of behavior
are the perspectives of a
culture based on values and
Hofstede argues that understanding
cultural dimensions will
cultures. What are they? Hofstede analyzed a large data base of employee surveys collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 from more than 70 countries.
He carried out a contest analysis on the responses employees had made on the surveys to examine the key differences in the countries.
This study has been replicated many times. One of the last instances was in 2005, which suggests that this study is reliable.
However, this study doesn't take into account that cultures can change, which could change the results in future studies. Hofstede (1973) “The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups”. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. In contrast, in collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a lifelong and cohesive group or organization. Individualism In this cultural dimension we measure with society and how they stand themselves between them. This refers to the amount of inequality that exists among the less or more powerful, but it is seen from the less powerful. There are two types of P/D which are
Power Distance - Short-term orientation:
Cultures that value personal steadiness and orientation
- People are future-oriented.
Short-term vs Long-term Orientation: - A dimension that deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainties and ambiguities.
Uncertainty/Avoidance Johnson American Chinese 2004 Johnson argues that american Individualism helps the state for better. It states that there should be personal expression , and the right to work for each personal gain, having nothing to do with selfishness but with working,and having your own rights granted and protected by the state. They say american individualism makes society stronger.
In China there is a different perspective of individualism, Johnson argues that the chinese are aware of their corrupt leaders so everything their leaders work on for "social progress" chinese are aware they do it for their own personal gain, that gain in which they believe it is individualistic. Excellent comparison between two entirely different cultures which are the American and Chinese.
Ecological validity is present as they worked in the natural way as possible with the minimum tools of just getting to know and interviewing both countries workers.
It doesn't have reliability at all because the difference in western and eastern cultures are quite noticeable.
Generalizing an entire country with few points of view.
These 2 countries work on an entire different way of government, America is a capitalist government that's why you get that individualism works great on society.
On the other hand China works on a communist government, that's why people process another type of Individualism. Evaluation Etic Approach: attempt to find universal behaviors
Emic approach: Looks at behavior that are culturally specific.
. Emic approach works more on cultures of a same place like in Papua New-guinea Emic Approach Etic Approach Mead 1935 Strengths Gender & Culture (Mead 1935)
3 different cultures in New-guinea
Arapesh- Non agressive personalities
Mundagamar- Unpleasant (Both men and women)
Tchambili- women dominant, men concerned on how they look ( feminine) Weakenesses clearly shown the distinctions between the 3 different cultures in New-guinea.
- more than 2 cultures to study to avoid lack of cultures Biased to the western culture, judging the characteristics of the cultures studied on her owm vision.
It also has ecological validity because it is not made in a lab, it is an outdoor experiment observing the different behaviors on the 3 different cultures.
No reliability since it has not been replicated on other studies, huge co troversy when she judged the cultures by feminine, masculine etc Etic Approach:
Attempt to find universal
behaviors that are the same
for everyone, like for
example facial expressions,
to laugh. Things that are
the same in every part of
the world. A meta analysis was used using a Asch line judgement. They used this to counduct how conformity has declined, it is related cross-culturally with Individualism vs Collectivism. 133 studies on 17 countries. Studies have analysed that these is assesed with Individualism vs Collectivism, since conformity has declined on every country since 1950. Surveys showed that collectivist countries had higher conformity levels. This decline is due of the lack of co formity to attend more cultural variables to process their social influence. Bibliography
-"Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions." - Leadership Training from MindTools.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm>.
-"Conformity." : Proxemic Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://www.funnelbrain.com/c-480309-proxemic-theory.html>.
- Psychology Class notes. individualism -ties between people are loose and people are expected to look after only themselves and immediate family.
Individualism vs Collectivism collectivism - people
are integrated into
provides you with
support and protection.
Collectedness. - Uncertainty: cultures that are more flexible and do not take so seriously most matters which would be taken very strictly and seriously in an avoiding culture.
- Avoidance: cultures that avoid uncertainty. - Our culture is believed to be more towards uncertainty than towards avoidance. Video: - Long -term orientation:
Focuses on persistence, loyalty, and trustworthiness.
-People are present and past-oriented. Hall's Proxemic Theory The proxemic theory is based on a culture's need for "personal space". Different cultures have different perceptions of the amount of personal space they need to feel comfortable.
For example, western cultures may feel comfortable speaking with someone else in a close proximity from each other, while people from eastern cultures may feel that their personal space if violated, if they were to be engaged by another person in the same proximity. - In this next video, professor Phillip Zimbardo explains short-term and long-term orientation, as well as how our individual perspectives of time affect our work, health and well-being. Time influences who we are as a person, how we view relationships and how we act in the world. Time Consciousness -Monochronic Cultures: cultures that are strict and serious about time and deadlines. -Polychronic Cultures: cultures that feel more relaxed about time and deadlines - For example, Honduras could be considered ad a plychronic country, given that we evidently feel more relaxed about time and deadlines, compared to other countries like the USA. Confucian Work Dynamism It is tied to long-term and short-term orientation, and consists of:
- Virtuous behavior towards others: treating them as you would like to be treated.
- being patient and preserving, not spending more than necessary, and working hard.
- family and its traditions is most important.
- In long-term orientation, there are high Confucian values, and in short-term orientation there are low Confucian values.
This usually occurs
in poor countries in
which the less powerful
accept their place in
society and let their
leaders to take care of
it. It also happens in
and people who acknowledge
their leaders powers.
Malaysia 104 on the PD
scale is the highest
on the scale. LowPD
Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view themselves as equals. We can see how Austria (11) and Germany (35) among other european countries have these low scale PD due to the short gap between the wealthy and poor and the incredible amount of companies builded of supervisors a d employees which are considered almost the same. This deals with more use of teamwork, and involving whichever amount of people at the time of making an important decision.