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Extrasensory Perception ESP
Transcript of Extrasensory Perception ESP
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
mind-to mind communication
ex: one person sending thoughts to another
Premonitions or Pretensions
some psychics are used as aid in police departments
found it is not any better than guesses
ex: 65% of police departments in America's 50 largest cities use psychics- NONE found it helpful
Testing ESP Experimentally
parapsychology needs a reproducible phenomenon and a theory to explain it
the study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis
perceiving remote events
sensing a friend's house is on fire
: perceiving future events
ex: predicting the Red Sox will win
some believe dreams foretell the future
only some match true events by chance
ex: 1932 Charles Lindbergh's son was kidnapped and killed- only 4/1300 dream reports were completely accurate (no better than if by chance)
there are billions of thoughts each day- by chance some will match with reality
ex: John Byrne (comic writer)
wrote about an earthquake in Japan in his Spider Man story- a month later there was an earthquake in Japan
Superman rescued a NASA space shuttle- then the Challenger disaster happened
skeptics note that psychics can appear to have ESP using stage magic illusions
There have been a few studies with outcomes above results due to chance however they were not replicated
2008 Moulton & Kosslyn (Harvard researchers) had a "sender" send 1 of 2 pictures telepathically to a "receiver" who was in and fMRI machine
the receiver guessed picture correctly 50% of the time
brain responded no different than when viewing actual picture
"strongest evidence yet obtained against existence of paranormal mental phenomena"
to refute critics: need 1 person who can demonstrate a
PURPORTED PARANORMAL PHENOMENA
1. Psychics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of
2. A major criticism of ESP research is that
if the experimenter really believes in ESP, he or she is much more likely to interpret coincidence as cause-and-effect.
ESP researchers have made no attempt to be objective or scientific.
parapsychological skills are too consistent to be real.
researchers have been unwilling to investigate psychic phenomena in laboratory settings.
3.Many natural ESP occurrences are apparently a result of
unconscious psychological processes.