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Transcript of BRAND
The Aura Of The
Carducci's Definiton of the Aura of the Brand:
Value added to product by its brand;
More than the value of the materials
More than the value of the product's utility
used in the product
Value = The Consumers' Self Presentation
Economic Roots of Rise of Lifestyle
Prior to 1970, companies were more focused on selling a product for its functional purpose
Decrease in low skill yet high pay jobs
Labour intensive jobs went to countries where resources were also closer i.e. cotton
Companies began to market a lifestyle, selling their object as part of a bigger package
- rather than production, focused on detailing i.e. tailoring
Americans developed high culture
Data for marketing
- “Geo-demographic clustering systems”
Consumerist culture that love symbolic expression replacing an engaged society
The public often articulate in the realm of consumption because they have few political outlets for expressing their interests …
Nike: The Brand as a Product
- Revenues: 10% on advertising, 3% on capital investments
Sprung out of competition with Adidas
Success came from their branding
How they make their money:
• Rely on mark-up for profit
• Nike Swoosh = Useless
• Constantly changing their designs
The importance of timing & celebrity endorsement
Trademarking and copyright became big to distinguish fakes
Brands > Beliefs or Origins
Opposing brands appear
- Charity Involvement
- Denial of bad practice
Building a brand further:
Capitalism in a postmodern world:
Economic shift led by the emergence of technology; capitalism at risk
Shift from an industrial to information-based system
Hierarchies ---> Networks
Shift from mass production to smaller, more specialized batch production
Mass Production vs. Batch production
Significant ECONOMIC CAPITAL involved
High volume manufacturing: Fordism
Control still belongs to those on top (hierarchy)
Information systems allow for remote management
Sustained by high turnover and high consumption
Less of an emphasis on production, and more on CULTURAL CAPITAL
A Brand's CULTURAL CAPITAL
Brands consider their Image their most valuable asset; their CULTURAL CAPITAL is just as important as their economic capital.
ex. Copyright Term Extension Act = ‘Mickey Mouse Bill’ passed in 1998; gives companies protection over cultural assets
Why is this?
How are brands valuable to consumers (and thus companies)?
Help organize social identity in post-modern consumer culture
Brand names have become emblems of personal character, and consumption permeates all aspects of social life.
"The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"
The loss of the of the Aura due to photography and film
Benjamin referred to a cultural product's aura as its irreplaceable uniqueness and authenticity
Carducci referred to a product's aura as its distinctive quality.
Carducci doesn't believe that reproduction signifies the 'death of the aura'
Benjamin saw the 'death of the aura' as the loss of a single authority within the work of art
What a product means and represents is negotiated by producers and consumers.
He saw the Aura as what gave a product its value