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Copy of The OFFICE
Transcript of Copy of The OFFICE
OF OFFICE Administrative
Services Factors to consider when determining if the chair is appropriate for the person: Office Storage
The design of office storage should focus on the types of items to be stored and the capabilities and limitations of the people who use the storage. General principles of storage areas: Managing Administrative Services Item Hazard/s Solutions SETTING UP YOUR OFFICE CHAIR OFFICE CHAIRS
The office chair was strategically designed to increase the productivity of clerical employees by making it possible for them to remain sitting at their desks for long periods of time. A swiveling chair with casters allowed employees to remain sitting and yet reach a number of locations within their work area, eliminating the time and energy expended in standing. The wooden saddle seat was designed to fit and support the body of a sitting employee, and the slatted back and armrests provided additional support to increase the employee’s comfort. WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION? What is Record? Scheduling & Audience Office Environment
and Storage Lay back and watch a part of 'THE OFFICE' Advantages of Office Automation:
Office automation can get many tasks accomplished faster eliminating the need for a larger staff. Mac only •ENVIRONMENT - the aggregate of surrounding things, conditions, or influences. Advantages & Disadvantages
of Office Automation
•OFFICE - a place where business is carried on. •OFFICE ERGONOMIC - its goal is to set up your office work space so that it fits you and the job you are doing. •ERGONOMIC ENVIRONMENT - addresses the problems of maintaining human comfort, activity and health in stressful environments. •OFFICE
AND SAFETY •ERGONOMIC - literally means the science of work. •OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH - is concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. •it should be adjustable to the task and be easily adjusted from the seated position;
•the seat should be height-adjustable, preferably utilizing a gas lift for ease of adjustment;
•the seat should have a curved front edge, to minimize pressure on the underside of the thighs;
•the seat should be able to tilt slightly backwards or forwards; •it should have a supportive backrest that is adjustable in height, angle and depth;
•both the seat and backrest should be covered by cloth or some other type of material that breathes;
•it should have armrests because they help decrease the forces on the shoulders and back during rest from keying and it should preferably be adjustable in height. Step 1: Set your backrest
•Set the Backrest Angle Step 2: Set your Seat Tilt Step 3: Set your Seat Height •COMMON PROBLEMS WITH OFFICE CHAIRS 1.Incorrect
Casters 2.Gas Lift
Keeps Dropping 3.Office
Reclines 4.Office Chair
Adjusted Kneeling Chair ChairSit Stand ChairSaddle Chair •CORRECT SITTING POSTURE WHAT IS SERVICE? A valuable action,
deed, or effort performed to
satisfy a need or to fulfill
a demand. ADMINISTRATIVE POSITIONS AND THEIR TASK ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGERS An administrative manager oversees the support operations of a business or organization. A secretary, personal assistant or administrative assistant, is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication & organizational skills. The responsibilities of
commonly include record
keeping, filing, staffing
service counters and
other administrative tasks 1. The management of any office, business, or organization; direction.
2. The function of a political state in exercising its governmental duties.
3. the duty or duties of an administrator in exercising the executive functions of the position.
4. The management by an administrator of such duties.
5. A body of administrators, especially in government A receptionist is an employee taking an office/administrative support position. The work is usually performed in a waiting area such as a lobby or front office desk of an organization or business. Mail handling Office mail is divided into
two types called incoming
mail and outgoing mail-
A good system of inward
mail contains the following
procedures: (a) Receiving and collection of
mail from the post office.
(b) Removing all contents from
the envelopes after opening of
(c) All the letters received are
duly stamped to show the date
of receipt. (d) When the letters received are
required by more than one department,
such letters are brought to the notice
of the concerned department through circulation slip.
(e) Recording the mail in dak received
(f) Distribution of the dak received.
(g) Making follow-up of letters to ensure
that these are replied. The 6 Core Purchasing
Strategies •Supplier Optimization
•Green Purchasing Types of Employee benefits
•Paid time off
•Fringe benefits What is Record? Records are the information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person. Types of Records Vital Records
Vital records are necessary for continued operations
of the organization. These records cannot be replaced
and should never be destroyed. Useful Records Useful Records are records that assist in keeping the business operations running smoothly on a day-to-day basis. Important or Essential Records
These are records that are necessary for the operation of the business but that could be replaced with considerable cost and effort. Non-essential Records
These are records that
are of little or no value to
the office and probably
should never have been
retained. Records Management
Records management, or RM, is the
practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created
up to their eventual disposal.
Records Management includes classifying,
filing, storing, and disposing Classifying Records
Classifying records is a process in
which records are identified and
categorizedfor filing on the basis
of their subject matter and subject
category, and are assigned a file
number for efficient retrieval. Tips for Classifying
a Document Check the letterhead.
Check the addressee (the recipient).
Read the subject line of a letter, memorandum, or e-mail message with suspicion.
Check the date of the document. Filing Records
Filing is the process of arranging of records in a systematic way so they will not only be safely stored but also quickly retrieved or located when needed. Different Kinds of Filing System 1.Alphabetical Name File
( by name of individual
or organization) 2.Alphabetic
( by subject ) 3.Alphabetic
Location File 4.Numerical File
( by the number
to record ) 5.Chronological File
( by the date of records) Storage equipment
Storage equipment used in the office must provide appropriate protection for records based on the format and volume of the records, how frequently they are used, how quickly they need to be accessed, and security requirements.
The main types of filing equipment are:
Vertical filing cabinets –
Lateral filing units –
Mobile shelving Storing Records
Paper Records should be stored in a
manner that enables ease of access to authorized members of staff and at the
same time provide a sufficient level of secure storage in order to prevent unauthorized individuals obtaining
access to them. Telephone techniques
The telephone has become so much a part of our lives that it would seem incomprehensible to live without one! Most of our communication, whether personal or business, is initiated and conducted via the telephone. First impressions are not only made in face-to-face interactions, but also during phone conversations. Common mistakes when answering the telephone:
•Allowing the telephone to ring for too long
•Mumbling, speaking too fast and talking with food in the mouth
•Putting on an ascent
•Rude, impatient and unfriendly reply
•Shouting or raising your voice when you cannot hear the caller clearly
•Not addressing the caller by his name
•Holding two conversation at the same time
•Making the caller wait unnecessarily
•Failure to check the caller’s name and other details for return call
•Taking complaints as personal criticism
•Slamming the telephone down before the caller finishes talking Correct
Answer the telephone
calls promptly in the
first or second ring.
Use Formal greetings
Screen the caller
Speak softly and clearly
Avoid slang words
Always use pleasant
congenial and friendly tone
Do not eat or drink where you are on the phone
Do not allow interruptions to occur during conversation.
Do ask to place the caller on hold
Offer to help the caller 3.Taking Messages
Keep a message pad and
pen near to your phone
Ask caller for correct
spelling of her name,
phone number and what
the call is concerning
Repeat the information
Do listen to the caller
Do not forget to
accomplish the message slip 4.Terminating/Ending Calls
Summarize any information
that has been given.
Ask the caller if there is
anything else you can help
Do not forget to say
“ Thank you “
The courteous secretary
waits for the caller to hang
up first before replacing
the receiver. Handling
Customers 10 Steps
Complainants 1.Actively listen.
2.Allow the client to express their opinions.
3.Maintain your personal integrity at all times. 4.Be sympathetic. And Be
5.Ask questions. 6.Be sympathetic. And Be empathetic
7.Ask questions. 8.Apologize when appropriate.
9.Offer to try to fix the problem.
10.Gain agreement on your resolution. Computer, Mouse and Keyboard Windows only
In any application in Windows and underlined letter in a top-level menu name indications that that menu will open when you use ALT + Underlined letter. Once the menu is open hit any underlined letter in a command name (menu item) to perform the corresponding command. Common problems with keyboard What is a Computer?
Problems with Computer Work Surface Layout
& Tertiary Reach Zones Common Problems with Workstation Document Holders
Document holders are designed to hold reference material so that they can be positioned according to the visual needs of the user. Document holders help to keep the head balanced over the shoulders and are useful for work that involves a lot of copying whilst working at the computer. Ideally, the document holder should be positioned between the keyboard and monitor. If this is not possible, position the document holder close to the computer screen at eye level. In-line Document Holder Side of Monitor Document Holder Common Problems with
Document Position What is a Telephone?
Common Problems with Telephone Laptop Computers What is a keyboard? Common Keyboard Shortcuts for Mac and Windows On Mac use the Apple key instead of the Control key (CTRL) 1.Large or heavy items should be stored to minimize the demands of handling. 2.Frequently handled items should be placed within easy reach. 3.Items carried on a
trolley should remain
on the trolley while in
storage. 4.Smaller, lightweight and infrequently
handled items may be stored in the lower
or higher areas of a storage system. 5.It should be easy to place
items into the storage unit and
take them out. Filing Cabinets •If possible place the back of the filing cabinet against the wall. This will minimize the risk of it tipping forwards. •Check the weights of filing cabinet contents and re-distribute accordingly. •Regularly review the contents of filing cabinets and relocate infrequently used files to archive storage or a central filing system. •Re-locate filing cabinets
with sliding drawers that open
into passage ways away into
less frequently used area. •Ensure that filing
cabinets are kept clear
of obstructions. Shelving systems •a safe means of climbing up to the required level; and
•an intermediate support point to enable lifting or lowering in stages as users step to higher levels. Common Problems with Filing Cabinet Storage
Principles Item Hazard/s Solutions •Large or heavy files or other
items stored above shoulder
height in the filing cabinet
may result in muscular strain
injuries or injuries to the head.
•Frequently accessed files or
other items stored below knee
height or above shoulder height
in the filing cabinet. •Large or heavy items should
be stored at easily accessible
heights, between shoulder and
knee height, to minimise the
physical demands of handling.
•Smaller, lightweight and
infrequently used items may
be stored in the lower or
higher areas of the filing cabinet. Item Hazard/s Solutions Stability •Filing cabinet may tip over
if the top drawer is open and the
cabinet is not restrained.
•Filing cabinet drawers may slide
open if it is not standing level and
is not locked shut.
•Filing cabinet may tip over because
heaviest files or other contents are
placed in the top drawer, whilst lower
drawers contain lighter contents or
are fairly empty. •If possible place the back of the
filing cabinet against the wall.
This will minimise the risk of it
•Check to ensure that all filing
cabinets are standing level.
Wedges and a spirit may be required
to achieve a level position.
•Check filing cabinets to ensure that
the drawers will not slide open when
the cabinet is locked.
•Check the weights of filing cabinet
contents and re-distribute accordingly. Item Hazard/s Solutions Overfilling •Muscle strain injuries may be caused
by using excessive force to remove or
insert files from tightly packed drawers.
This is particularly the case with drawers
above waist height. •Regularly review the contents of
filing cabinets and relocate infrequently
used files to archive storage or a
central filing system. Item Hazard/s Solutions Obstructions •Open filing cabinet drawers
may cause obstructions of
office traffic areas.
•Office equipment or storage
that limits access to filing
cabinet drawers may result
in muscle strain type injuries
due to excessive twisting and
bending required to access
drawers. •Re-locate filing cabinets with
sliding drawers that open into
passage ways away into less
frequently used area.
•Ensure that filing cabinets are
kept clear of obstructions. Common Problems with Lighting Item Hazard/s Solutions Level of lighting •Eyestrain and headaches can result from an the level of lighting being insufficient for the type of tasks being performed. •Good lighting should enable users to easily view their work and environment without straining their eyes.
•Tasks that are predominantly writing and reading require higher lighting levels.
•Tasks that are predominantly computer based require lower lighting levels.
•Often the tasks are a combination of both and therefore 320-400 Lux is generally considered to suit most users.
•Have tubes and light
regularly. Item Hazard/s Solutions Glare •Eye fatigue and headaches
can be caused by light being reflected from the walls and other surfaces in the work area. •Control natural light from
the windows eg. install and use Venetian blinds (these usually work best when angled up rather than down).
•Decrease the contrast
between the foreground and the background eg. use a slightly darker partition with a matte surface to reduce the contrast
between a computer screen
and the surrounding area.
•Reposition the workstation to reduce light falling on the
•Reduce the general
lighting. Item Hazard/s Solutions Reflections •Bright reflections can be a source
of glare and image reflections are annoying, as they also interfere with focusing mechanisms of the eye. The eye is forced to focus alternately on text and reflective image. •Reflections from screens have been significantly reduced by the use of LCD screens and non-reflective screen surfaces.
•Position the monitor screen side on to the main light source.
•Work with a light coloured background screen set on the monitor.
•Consider re-positioning the workstation. Flicker •Eye discomfort caused by exposure to continuous flickering of a malfunctioning fluorescent tube. •Replace any faulty tubes or fitting.
•Regularly inspect office lights as part of the regularly scheduled Office/Workplace Environment/Safety Inspection. Item Hazard/s Solutions Shadows •Shadows can reduce the visibility of work, contribute to glare problems and cause the user to adopt poor posture in order to view work. •Increase the number and spread of overhead lighting.
•Re-direct the available lighting.
•Re-position the workstation.
•Barriers to light falling on the work surface such as an overhead shelf should be removed or relocated.
•An adjustable task lamp may provide specific lighting where shadows are a problem. This can create pools of light so care should be taken with this option. Item Hazard/s Solutions Task Lighting •Doing clerical work in low light areas.
•Performing tasks eg. working on spreadsheets that require a high level of visual accuracy. •Provide supplementary task
lighting. PREVENTION STRATEGIES AND SYSTEMS OF WORK Early Intervention and Prevention Strategies •job design
•supervision and training
•the role of the individual and
•the ergonomic design of the workstation. Managers and Supervisors are encouraged to: •Ensure that all job descriptions of staff incorporate a variety of tasks which allow variation in movement and posture •Endeavour to ensure that no employee is required to continually type or enter data for more than 5 hours per day. •Endeavour to ensure that no employee is required to continually type or enter data for more than 5 hours per day. •Allow an adjustment period to the work rates after work absences or during a learning period. Employees are encouraged to:
•Employees should report any physical discomfort they believe is associated with their work Supervisor or Manager.
Rest breaks can range from short pauses to defined breaks such as lunch. Short Pause Breaks
These are short breaks that provide an opportunity for muscles that have been active in keyboard or mouse use to rest and recover and muscles which have been fixed such as shoulder muscles or leg muscles to move. Short Pause Break activities include:
•Answering the phone
•Collecting a document from the printer
•Getting a cup of tea or glass of water
Visiting a colleague rather than phoning or emailing them. Health and Fitness Health & Exercise
Personal Tolerance Levels & Limits OFFICE An office is a place where staff and line professionals, secretaries, and clerks perform management and administrative tasks. AUTOMATION
automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human labor. OFFICE AUTOMATION
Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. HISTORY
Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene. The history of office automation began with the typewriter and the copy machine, which mechanized previously manual tasks THE BASICS OF OFFICE AUTOMATION 1. DATA STORAGE AND MANIPULATION
•Text-handling software cover the whole field of word processing and desktop publishing. Word processing is the inputting and manipulation of text on a computer. OFFICE AUTOMATION: PEOPLE, TOOLS, AND THE WORKPLACE •People
-A wide range of people including software and hardware engineers, management information scientists, and secretaries use office automation •Tools
- for office automation include computer hardware and software currently available in a number of models, applications, and configurations. •Workplace
- issues of office automation often involve the budget and physical considerations involved with creating, exchanging, and managing information. Data Exchange
Electronic transfer software and systems allow for electronic, voice, and facsimile transmission of office information. Most of these systems allow users to relay electronic mail to more than one recipient, although they refer to this in an old-fashioned way as carbon copying or "ccing." Electronic mail, or e-mail systems, provide security features, automatic messaging, and mail management systems like electronic folders or notebooks. 3. DATA MANAGEMENT
The last major component of an office automation system offers planning and strategic advantages by simplifying the management of stored information. Electronic management systems monitor and control office activities and tasks through timelines, resource equations, and electronic scheduling. Disciplinary action Disciplinary action is a process of communicating with the employee to improve unacceptable behavior or performance. You may take disciplinary action when other methods such as coaching and performance appraisal have not been successful. Disciplinary alternatives Oral Warning
is a spoken reprimand from an employer or supervisor in a job position. It is a statement, made by a boss- usually in some formal capacity- that a particular behavior, series of behaviors or situation is not appropriate or up to par. Written Warning
If you have an oral warning and the problem performance or behavior persist, a written warning may be effective. You may decide to use this disciplinary action more than once, to get the employee’s attention . Be careful, however, not to get stuck issuing repetitive letters of warning that fail to influence the employee’s behavior or performance. Suspension without Pay
Suspension typically prevents work for a number of working days, as specified in the letter, and pay is docked accordingly. Reduction of Pay within a Class
This is normally used when you do not wish to remove the employee from the work site, but serious discipline is appropriated. Demolition to a Lower Classification
This action involves movement of an employee to a lower level position, and may be temporary or permanent. Dismissal
This is normally selected after performance counseling and progressive discipline have failed to get the employee’s attention. ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
PROBLEM Problem of Policy
This involve the setting of major objectives and formulating plans of action for their attainment. Intended Effects
Policies are typically instituted to avoid some negative effect that has been noticed in the organization, or to seek some positive benefit.
Because the environments that policies seek to influence or manipulate are typically complex adaptive systems, making a policy change can have counterintuitive results. Problems of Organization
It involves the classification of activities into administrative groups, fixing responsibility for the performance of each group, providing for the proper coordination of all the groups in order to cooperate effectively in the attainment of the objectives. Organizations are facing different problems in today’s environment like:
Globalization Problems of Personnel
It involves the procurement, development, and use of individuals to perform the responsibilities established by the organization plans. Some of the problems of personnel are:
Recruitment and selection
Performance Appraisal Problems of Facilities
It involves the procurement, maintenance, and use of the physical factors needed in the performance of the operations necessary in the attainment of the objectives. Some of the problems of facilities are:
Managing office space
Selecting office furniture and equipment
Ergonomic office space Problems of Methods
It involves the establishment and use of routines and procedures required to perform effectively the operations necessary to attain such objectives established by the policies. Some of the problems of methods are:
Establishing office management routines
Decision Making Process
Data management Types of functions integrated by office automation systems (1) Electronic publishing;
(2) Electronic communication;
(3) Electronic collaboration;
(4) Image processing; and
(5) Office management. Electronic Publishing
Electronic publishing systems include word processing and desktop publishing. Electronic Communication
Electronic communication systems include electronic mail (e-mail), voice mail, facsimile (fax), and desktop videoconferencing Electronic Mail.
E-mail is software that allows users, via their computer keyboards, to create, send, and receive messages and files to or from anywhere in the world. Voice Mail.
Voice mail is a sophisticated telephone answering machine. It digitizes incoming voice messages and stores them on disk. Facsimile.
A facsimile or facsimile transmission machine (FAX) scans a document containing both text and graphics and sends it as electronic signals over ordinary telephone lines to a receiving fax machine. Desktop Videoconferencing
Desktop videoconferencing is one of the fastest growing forms of videoconferencing. Desktop videoconferencing requires a network and a desktop computer with special application software as well as a small camera installed on top of the monitor. Electronic Collaboration
Electronic collaboration is made possible through electronic meeting and collaborative work systems and teleconferencing.
Image processing systems include electronic document management, presentation graphics, and multimedia systems. Office Management
Office management systems include electronic office accessories, electronic scheduling, and task management. These systems provide an electronic means of organizing people, projects, and data. Benefits of Office Automation
Office automation reduces the number of clerical workers carrying out routine tasks
Office employees become more flexible and as a result one person can now do the jobs of several people
Receptionists can spend more time with clients
Managers need not necessarily delegate typing, with the secretary's role being redefined to include more Public Relations work. Components and Other Tools Available in Office Automation
- An action or operation performed electronically by activating a function key or sequence of keys. Examples of functions include copy, delete, move, search, calculate, go to, change font, and print.
- A program of instructions that interacts with the system's hardware to perform operational or functional tasks. Software Type
- Software packages that provide similar capabilities are categorized as a particular type of software, e.g., database management, electronic spreadsheet, or word processing.
- Word processing software, designed for developing textual documents, permits users to create, format, modify, and print documents electronically.
- Spreadsheet software, used extensively for accounting and financial purposes, is designed for maintaining, manipulating, and calculating numerical data. Graphics
- Graphics software typically allows the creation of charts and graphs based on data provided through a spreadsheet or by the user directly
- Project management software permits the user to identify tasks, task relationships, resources, and time requirements of a project; to manipulate that information for planning purposes; to track work progress against the plans; and to report and display information about the project in varied ways.
- Calendar software generally permits the user to schedule events on one or more calendars.
- Electronic mail (email) permits sending information to users through their computers' communication links. •Less storage spaces
The modern business world is fraught with time issues that office automation to any level represents a huge advantage in terms of breathing space. •Cost efficient
There are lot of areas wherein automation can be implemented in an office environment. And automation helps the company in many ways such as minimizing the use of papers thus contributing to the welfare of the environment. •Advanced technology
Nowadays, people choose use of computers in an office environment than the traditional typewriters because computers to efficiently create, edit, copy, print, and send documents. •Increased Efficiency
Accuracy is clearly a very important facet of any business process. When common processes are automated, they are completed in exactly the same way every time. Disadvantages of Office Automation •Complicated system
A common disadvantage of using automated systems is the training of older people who are more comfortable using the older system that a particular office has – they may find the new system hard to use. •Reduce job opportunities
When automation is taking place in an office fewer employees are needed. This leads to reduced manpower - in communities, states, and the nation, as a whole, increasing the unemployment rate. •Power interruption
If the automated system does not function -- when power is interrupted, for example -- you might not be able to use manual methods to continue business. For instance, if your product catalog exists exclusively on your computer and the system goes down, you might be unable to take and process orders. Impact of Automation
in the industry In Banking
Many people and companies use computers to help manage their finances. Some use finance software to balance checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income and expenses, manage investments, and evaluate financial plans. Online banking allows users to access account balance, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions from the bank’s computer. In education
Interaction through networks helps break down communication barriers and connects students and teachers with the outside world. Access to a computer, a modem, and phone lines frees students and teachers from the physical limits and time constraints of the school environment. In Supermarket
Computer systems are used in a variety of ways in the modern, large supermarket, from stock control to maintaining temperatures in fridges and freezers. The
•Desktop publishing-adds another dimension to text manipulation. •Image-handling software are another facet of office automation. Images, or digital pictures, are representations of visual information. •Spreadsheet programs allow the manipulation of numeric data.. Many businesses use spreadsheets for financial management, financial projection, and accounting.