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National Curriculum

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Susanna Obmann

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of National Curriculum

Australia
"Making in Visual Arts involves students making representations of their ideas and intended
meanings in different forms. Students select the visual effects they want to create through
problem-solving and making decisions. They develop knowledge, understanding and skills as
they learn and apply techniques and processes using materials to achieve their intentions in
two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) forms."

"Both Making and Responding involve developing practical and critical understanding of how the
artist uses an artwork to engage audiences and communicate meaning."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 113)


National Curriculum
in Art Education - 21st century
by Stephanie, Susanna & Tom
"At a good school children gain the basic tools for life and work. But they ought also to learn the joy of life; the exhilaration of music, the excitement of sport, the beauty of art, the magic of science."

Tony Blair, May 2001.

Australian Curriculum: The Arts
Foundation to Year 10

Year groupings
Rationale: The Arts
Rationale: Visual Arts
Aims: The Arts
Aims: Visual Arts
Making
Responding
Concepts, processes or frameworks used to structure teaching and learning
Positioning of student:
Positioning of teacher:
Strengths
Weaknesses
Debates/Issues
References
How did it come to be?
The Arts have the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich all students, exciting the
imagination and encouraging them to reach their creative and expressive potential. The five
Arts subjects in the Australian Curriculum are Dance, Drama, Media Arts, Music, and Visual
Arts. Together they provide opportunities for students to learn how to create, design,
represent, communicate and share their imagined and conceptual ideas, emotions,
observations and experiences.
Rich in tradition, the Arts play a major role in the development and expression of cultures
and communities, locally, nationally and globally. Students communicate ideas in current,
traditional and emerging forms and use arts knowledge and understanding to make sense of
their world. The Australian Curriculum: The Arts values, respects and explores the significant
contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to Australia’s arts heritage and
contemporary arts practices through their distinctive ways of representing and
communicating knowledge, traditions and experience. In the Arts, students learn as artists
and audience through the intellectual, emotional and sensory experiences of the Arts. They
acquire knowledge, skills and understanding specific to the Arts subjects and develop critical
understanding that informs decision making and aesthetic choices. Through the Arts,
students learn to express their ideas, thoughts and opinions as they discover and interpret
the world. They learn that designing, producing and resolving their work is as essential to
learning in the Arts as is creating a finished artwork. Students develop their Arts knowledge
and aesthetic understanding through a growing comprehension of the distinct and related
languages, symbols, techniques, processes and skills of the Arts subjects. Arts learning
provides students with opportunities to engage with creative industries and arts
professionals.
The Arts entertain, challenge, provoke responses and enrich our knowledge of self,
communities, world cultures and histories. The Arts contribute to the development of
confident and creative individuals, nurturing and challenging active and informed citizens.
Learning in the Arts is based on cognitive, affective and sensory/kinaesthetic response to
arts practices as students revisit increasingly complex content, skills and processes with
developing confidence and sophistication across their years of learning.
Visual Arts supports students to view the world through various lenses and contexts. They
recognise the significance of visual arts histories, theories and practices, exploring and
responding to artists, craftspeople and designers and their artworks. They apply visual arts
knowledge in order to make critical judgments about their own importance as artists and
audiences. Learning in the Visual Arts helps students to develop understanding of world culture
and their responsibilities as global citizens.
Subjective student development
Creating "good" citizens
Visual Arts includes the fields of art, craft and design. Learning in and through these fields,
students create visual representations that communicate, challenge and express their own and
others’ ideas as artist and audience. They develop perceptual and conceptual understanding,
critical reasoning and practical skills through exploring and expanding their understanding of
their world, and other worlds. They learn about the role of the artist, craftsperson and designer,
their contribution to society, and the significance of the creative industries. Similarly with the
other art forms, the visual arts has the capacity to engage, inspire and enrich the lives of
students, encouraging them to reach their creative and intellectual potential by igniting informed,
imaginative and innovative thinking.
Through Visual Arts, students make and respond using visual arts knowledge, understanding
and skills to represent meaning associated with personal and global views, and intrinsic and
extrinsic worlds. Visual Arts engages students in a journey of discovery, experimentation and
problem-solving relevant to visual perception and visual language. Students undertake this
journey by utilising visual techniques, technologies, practices and processes. Learning in the
Visual Arts, students become increasingly confident and proficient in achieving their personal
visual aesthetic, and appreciate and value that of others.
exciting the imagination and encouraging them to reach their creative and expressive potential
learn how to create, design, represent, communicate and share their imagined and conceptual ideas, emotions, observations and experiences.
to make sense of their world
values, respects and explores the significant contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
intellectual, emotional and sensory experiences
learn to express their ideas, thoughts and opinions
opportunities to engage with creative industries and arts professionals
enrich our knowledge of self
communities, world cultures and histories
contribute to the development of confident and creative individuals
nurturing and challenging active and informed citizens
They learn about the role of the artist, craftsperson and designer, their contribution to society
capacity to engage, inspire and enrich the lives of students
reach their creative and intellectual potential by
igniting informed, imaginative and innovative thinking
to represent meaning associated with personal and global views
engages students in a journey of discovery, experimentation and
problem-solving
students become increasingly confident and proficient in achieving their personal visual aesthetic
helps students to develop understanding of world culture and their responsibilities as global citizens
to make critical judgments about their own importance as artists and audiences
Foundation - Year 2: 5-8 years
Years 3 - 6: 8-12 years
Years 7 - 10: 12-15 years

Foundation - Year 2
Years 3 & 4
Years 5 & 6
Years 7 & 8
Years 9 & 10
Bands
(ACARA, 2013, pp. 116-132)
Time Allocation
"the need
where possible
for specialist teachers" (Garrett, 2012)
In addition to the overarching aims of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts, Visual Arts
knowledge, understanding and skills ensure that, individually and collaboratively, students
develop:

conceptual and perceptual ideas and representations through design and inquiry processes
visual arts techniques, materials, processes and technologies
critical and creative thinking, using visual arts languages, theories and practices to apply aesthetic judgment
respect for and acknowledgement of the diverse roles, innovations, traditions, histories and cultures of artists, craftspeople and designers; visual arts as social and cultural practices; and industry as artists and audiences
confidence, curiosity, imagination and enjoyment and develop a personal aesthetic through engagement with visual arts making and ways of representing and communicating.

The Australian Curriculum: The Arts aims to develop students‘:

creativity, critical thinking, aesthetic knowledge and understanding about arts practices, through making and responding to artworks with increasing self-confidence
arts knowledge and skills to communicate ideas; they value and share their arts and life experiences by representing, expressing and communicating ideas, imagination and observations about their individual and collective worlds to others in meaningful ways
use of innovative arts practices with available and emerging technologies, to express and represent ideas, while displaying empathy for multiple viewpoints
understanding of Australia’s histories and traditions through the Arts, engaging with the artworks and practices, both traditional and contemporary, of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
understanding of local, regional and global cultures, and their Arts histories and traditions, through engaging with the worlds of artists, artworks, audiences and arts professions

The curriculum entitles all Australian students to engage with these five Arts subjects throughout primary school with opportunities for students to specialise in one or more Arts subjects from the beginning of secondary school.
= ideas in a linear fashion
= strong material practice
= critical thinking, using Visual Arts terminology to critique artworks
= in a subjective manner
= awareness that depending on context different artists will create different works
"Responding in Visual Arts involves students responding to their own artworks and being audience members as they view, manipulate, reflect, analyse, enjoy, appreciate and evaluate their own and others’ visual artworks."

"Both Making and Responding involve developing practical and critical understanding of how the artist uses an artwork to engage audiences and communicate meaning."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 113)


Making
Responding
Knowledge and skills of Visual Arts
Visual conventions
Viewpoints
Representation
Practices
“As students make, investigate or critique artworks as artists and audiences, they may ask and answer questions to interrogate the artists’ meanings and the audiences’ interpretations. Meanings and interpretations are informed by contexts of societies, cultures and histories, and an
understanding of visual arts practices. These questions provide the basis for making informed
critical judgments about their own art and design works and other artworks they see, hear and
interact with as audiences.

The complexity and sophistication of such questions will change across Foundation to Year 10.
In the later years, students will consider the interests and concerns of artists and audiences
regarding time, place, philosophies and ideologies, critical theories, institutions and psychology.”
(ACARA, 2013, p. 114)

subjective
self-developing
"good" citizen
concerned about Asian and Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander culture

the inclusion of the five Arts subjects
the two strand structure, Making and Responding, is clear for primary teachers
the emphasis on students becoming innovative, critical and imaginative
catering for student diversity.




too much content in the primary bands. The collective content across the five
Arts subjects in the three bands of primary school is greater than a generalistteacher can reasonably manage
Foundation to Year 2 is considered too broad a range of years for one band
Making and Responding strand organisers are perceived by secondary specialists as limiting
the place of historical context and critical analysis needs strengthening across the five Arts subjects
references to ‘play’ in the Foundation to Year 2 band should be intentional and purposeful
the cross-curriculum priorities need to be better developed and integrated across the five Arts subjects
references to general capabilities are too general
connections to other learning areas and subject as discussion in ‘Links to other learning areas’ in the Organisation section and in the sixth Making content description considered unnecessary
band descriptions need to be specific to the particular Arts subject without repetitive generic content
language needs to be consistent across the Arts and terminology specific within each Arts subject
the distinction between techniques and skills needs to be clarified and clear in each Arts subject
elements need to be clearly defined in each Arts subject for introduction in the primary years
each Arts subject should have a clear sequential developmental continuum
rationales and aims are vague and need to clearly identify the importance of knowing practically and conceptually in each Arts subject
achievement standards are too generic and need to clearly identify the knowledge, understanding and skills students are expected to demonstrate by the end of the band.
???
babysitter
counsellor
not specialised
Romanticisation of the arts
The Arts produces students who are happier, more engaged, more self aware. (Garrett, 2012)
The Arts are for counselling students through difficult times. (Garrett, 2012).
Loss of the specialist teacher
& time
Not as good as current
curriculum
"underpinned by a rigorous content base and the lastest, best tested pedagogical thinking." (Garrett, 2012)
A "romanticised notion" of arts education is "chiefly about creative self expression and freedom for the individual." (de Boehmler, 2012, p. 19)
''I just think it's unteachable. This would be really dumbing down each art form rather than providing any depth of learning. It takes away the integrity of visual arts as a subject by lumping it with a large curriculum called the arts.'' (Marian Strong, cited in Topsfield, 2010)
"Participants at the reference groups, and focus group meetings in particular, did not see the
document as being a contemporary and forward-thinking document. They indicated the belief
that it would diminish, not enhance, the quality of arts education available in NSW.
Participants felt that the lack of a strong arts-rich theoretical framework that acknowledged
the individuality and diversity of each artform would be a retrograde step for arts education in
NSW." (Board of Studies, 2011, p. 9)

USA
United Kingdom
guided by the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (2008). (ACARA, 2012c)
promotes a "world-class curriculum" (ACARA, 2012c)
education builds future citizens (ACARA, 2012c)
changing nature of youth (ACARA, 2012c)
"high performing countries set high expectations" (ACARA, 2012c)
English, Maths and Science orientated (ACARA, 2011c)
Timeline of the National Curriculum in the UK
_ 1988 The Education Reform Act is passed during the Conservative Thatcher era.
Prime Minister Margaret "the milk snatcher" Thatcher wants to privatise the education system, treating it like an open market with schools competing for students via league tables. Also introduced the KEY STAGES.
- 1991 Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) are brought in at state schools for all seven year olds.
- 1994 An A* grade is invented at GCSE to help distinguish between the top candidates. SATS are also introduced for 11 year olds
- 1996 The Education Act 1996 requires all maintained schools to offer courses in religious education, but parents can opt their children out of the subject. Secondary schools must also offer a sex education programme.
- 2002 New laws force all schools to offer pupils at least one course in each grouping of subjects at GCSE: the arts, design and technology, the humanities, and modern foreign languages.
- 2001 Tony Blair gives his famous "Education Education Education" speech
- 2003 Laws preventing councils from "promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship" are axed.
- 2007 Labour is criticised for telling schools to strip back the traditional curriculum, removing Churchill and Hitler from the syllabus in favour of courses in debt management, the environment and healthy eating.
- 2011 The coalition announces an overhaul of the curriculum, with more
focus to be placed on British history and great works of literature.
Year groups in the UK are organised into "Key Stages"
Key Stage 1 -2 for Primary
Key Stage 3 -4 for Secondary
Michael Gove, politics & changes in the current UK National Curriculum
The
Rationale
Visual Arts & Sir Ken Robinson
Year 9 & 10 Achievement Standard
"By the end of Year 10, students evaluate artworks they make and view and analyse viewpoints and practices in visual arts making and display from different cultures, times and places. They analyse connections between visual conventions, practices and viewpoints that represent their
own and others’ ideas.

Students conceptualise their representational ideas to realise a personal style in their art making and display practices. They manipulate and adapt different representational elements to enhance meaning in their artworks."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 132)
Year 7 & 8 Achievement Standard
"By the end of Year 8, students identify and analyse how other artists use visual arts practices, visual conventions and viewpoints to communicate ideas and apply this knowledge in their art making. They evaluate how they and others are impacted and influenced by artworks and practice from different cultures, times and places.

Students use a diverse range of representational elements, visual devices, techniques and processes to communicate meaning in their artworks. They identify the interrelationship between their own and others’ artworks."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 128)



Year 5 & 6 Achievement Standard
"By the end of Year 6, students explain how ideas are represented in artworks they make and view. They describe the influences of artworks and practices from different cultures, times and places on their art making.

Students manipulate representational elements and visual arts practices to express a personal view in their artworks. They demonstrate and document different perceptual and practical skills in the design, construction and display of artworks."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 124)
Year 3 & 4 Achievement Standard
Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard
"By the end of Year 4, students describe and discuss similarities and differences between artworks they make, display and view. They discuss how they and others communicate ideas visually.

Students collaborate to plan and make artworks that are influenced by traditions and practices of artworks they experience. They use a range of representational elements, techniques and processes to communicate their ideas and intentions."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 121)
"By the end of Year 2, students communicate about artworks they make and view and how and why artworks are made and displayed.

Students make artworks in different forms to express their ideas, observations and imagination, using different techniques and processes."

(ACARA, 2013, p. 118)

"There is too much emphasis on concepts like feeling, experimenting and the personal experience - ignoring the importance of skill training and the physical and cognitive demands of a quality dance education.'' (NSW Board of Studies, cited in Hall, 2012).

"The articulation of this structure into the learning processes and content sees subjectivity as sensory and affective domains conflated at the expense of the cognitive in these proposals." (Maras, 2010, p. 36)
"Art Education Australia president Marian Strong said teachers would have only about 20 minutes a week to devote to each area from kindergarten to year 8.
She said it was unfair that five art forms had to be squeezed into two hours a week, while geography and history were each allocated two hours a week in the classroom in the national curriculum." (Topsfield, 2010)
"The collective content across the five Arts subjects in the three bands of primary school is greater than a generalist teacher can reasonably manage." (ACARA, 2012b)

(ACARA, 2012d, p. 9)
(ACARA, 2011a)
(ACARA, 2012c, p. 9)
(ACARA, 2013, p. 3)
(ACARA, 2013, p. 112)
(ACARA, 2013, p. 4)
(ACARA, 2013, p. 112)
(ACARA, 2012b, p. ii)
(ACARA, 2012b, p. ii)
Australia
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2010). ACARA Curriculum Advisory Panel Members. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/ACARA_Curriculum_Advisory_Panel_Members_-_Arts.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2011a). The Arts. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/arts.html

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2011b). The Consultation Feedback Report on the draft Shape of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Consultation_Feedback_Report_-_The_Arts.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2011c). Curriculum. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/curriculum/curriculum.html

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2011d). Shape of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Shape_of_the_Australian_Curriculum_The_Arts_-_Compressed.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2012a). The Arts Curriculum Advisory Group. . Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/The_Arts_Advisory_group.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2012b). DRAFT AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM: THE ARTS: Consultation Report. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/The_Arts_-_F-10_-_Draft_Consultation_Report_-_November_2012_FINAL_-_as_at_9_August_2013.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2012c). Curriculum Design Paper: Version 3. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Curriculum_Design_Paper_version_3_(March_2012).pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2012d). Draft Australian Curriculum: The Arts Foundation to Year 10. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/DRAFT_Australian_Curriculum_The_Arts_Foundation_to_Year_10_July_2012.pdf

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2013). Australian Curriculum: The Arts: Foundation to Year 10. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/Australian_Curriculum_The_Arts_2_July_2013.pdf

Board of Studies. (2011). NSW Response to the Draft Shape of the Australian Curriculum: The Arts. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/pdf_doc/draft-shape-paper-arts-response.pdf

de Boehmler, T. (2012). In the frame - Visual arts and the national curriculum. Independent Education, 2, 18-19.

Garrett, P. (2012). Remarks at the opening of the National Visual Education Conference. Retrieved 18 Feb 2012 from http://www.ministers.deewr.gov.au/garrett/remarks-opening-national-visual-education-conference

Hall, B. (2012, July 10). Education takes a dramatic new course. Sydney morning herald. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/education-takes-a-dramatic-new-course-20120709-21rti.html

Maras, K. (2010). Does one size really fit all? How does Visual Arts fair as a knowledge domain in proposals for an Australian Curriculum for the Arts? Journal of Australian Art Education, Special Edition, 33, pp 35-45.

Topsfield, J. (2010, October 8). Debate rages over arts curriculum. The Age. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from http://www.theage.com.au/national/education/debate-rages-over-arts-curriculum-20101007-169r2.html#ixzz2eeSCeR15


THE STRUCTURE
Structure of the National Curriculum showing which subjects are compulsory and at which Key Stage
"The national curriculum provides pupils with an introduction to the essential knowledge that they need to be educated citizens. It introduces pupils to the best that has been thought and said; and helps engender an appreciation of human creativity and achievement."

The National Curriculum in England, p.5
Evaluative Discussion
po
Australia
United States
United Kingdom
Evaluative
discussion to
end.
Key stage 4 entitlement areas
3.7 The arts (comprising art and design, music, dance, drama and media arts), design and technology, the humanities (comprising geography and history) and modern
foreign language are not compulsory national curriculum subjects after the age of 14, but all pupils in maintained schools have a statutory entitlement to be able to study a subject in each of those four areas.
3.8 The statutory requirements in relation to the entitlement areas are:
 schools must provide access to a minimum of one course in each of the four entitlement areas
 schools must provide the opportunity for pupils to take a course in all four areas, should they wish to do so
 a course that meets the entitlement requirements
You need to
fill out the
worksheet!!
AIMS
The national curriculum for art and design aims to ensure that all pupils:

1 = produce creative work, exploring their ideas and recording their experiences

2 = become proficient in drawing, painting, sculpture and other art, craft and design techniques

3 = evaluate and analyse creative works using the language of art, craft and design

4 = know about great artists, craft makers and designers, and understand the historical and cultural development of their art forms.
"Attainment targets
By the end of each key stage, pupils are expected to know, apply and understand the matters, skills and processes specified in the relevant programme of study."
The National Curriculum in England, p182.
"Education must be about excellence"
David Cameron, July 2013
Context of Visual Arts within the American schooling system

> In the USA, approximately 14,000 school districts exist within states (Purcell, Mahlmann, Wills, Hatfield & Peeno, 1996), and it is up to each individual state as to whether Visual Arts is taught, which is considerably based on funding
> Founded in 1947, The National Art Education Association is the largest professional art education association in the world.
> The associations mission is to advance art education through professional development, service, and advancement of knowledge and leadership (National Art Education Association, 1994).
> ‘Arts’ education in America consists of Dance, Music, Theatre, Visual Arts and Media Arts subjects.

The national curriculum provides an outline of core knowledge around which teachers can develop exciting and stimulating lessons to promote the development of pupils’ knowledge, understanding and skills as part of the wider school curriculum.
The English National Curriculum, p.5
The Content. Do they actually learn anything?
ART MAKING & PRACTICE
ART CRITICAL/HISTORICAL
Introductory Comments
Key Stage 1
- to use a range of materials creatively to design and make products
- to use drawing, painting and sculpture to develop and share their ideas, experiences and imagination
- to develop a wide range of art and design techniques in using colour, pattern, texture, line, shape, form and space
Key Stage 1
- about the work of a range of artists, craft makers and designers, describing the differences and similarities between different practices and disciplines, and making links to their own work.
Key Stage 2
- to improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials (e.g. pencil, charcoal, paint, clay)
Key Stage 2
- to create sketch books to record their observations and use them to review and revisit ideas
- about great artists, architects and designers in history.
Key Stage 3
- to use a range of techniques to record their observations in sketchbooks, journals and other media as a basis for exploring their ideas
- to use a range of techniques and media, including painting
- to increase their proficiency in the handling of different materials
Pupils should be taught to develop their techniques, including their control and their use of materials, with creativity, experimentation and an increasing awareness of different kinds of art, craft and design.
Key Stage 3
- to analyse and evaluate their own work, and that of others, in order to strengthen the visual impact or applications of their work
- about the history of art, craft, design and architecture, including periods, styles and major movements from ancient times up to the present day.
Pupils should be taught to develop their creativity and ideas, and increase proficiency in their execution. They should develop a critical understanding of artists, architects and designers, expressing reasoned judgements that can inform their own work.
Background History

> 1990's, states revising their arts frameworks
> The US Congress and the US Department of Education and other national groups were calling for high quality visual art education in schools as part of Goals 2000: Educate America, which stated what all students were expected to achieve in subjects, including the arts (National Arts Education Association, 1994).
> In 1994, The National Art Education Association developed the The National Standards for Visual Arts education (Herberholz, 2010).
> Link to 1994 National Standards for Visual Arts developed by the National Art Education Association
http://www.arteducators.org/store/NAEA_Natl_Visual_Standards1.pdf

> These standards were voluntary for states to adopt, and it was up to states and individual districts to design and implement school art programs around these standards.
> There are 6 content standards for each stage (K-4, 5-8, 9-12).
1. understanding and applying media, techniques and processes
2. using knowledge of structures and functions
3. choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols and ideas
4. understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures
5. reflecting on and seeing the characteristics and merits of their work and the work of others
6. making connections between visual arts and other disciplines

> Dorn (2005) criticises the 1994 standards, stating that it is narrowly focused on media skills or on the elements and principles of design, and focuses too much on individualism, which he sees as a weakness because it promotes competitiveness in contrast to cooperation.
> The NAEA (National Art Education Association, 2013) also states that designers, teacher training programs, and state policy makers have relied on the 1994 national arts standards to help guide their decision making till this point in time.

CHRONOLOGY OF UK ASSESSMENT LEVELS
Key Stage 4
Years 10 & 11
15- 16 year olds
GCSE
(General Certificate of Education)
Secondary School Years 11 & 12
or Sixth Form College
16 - 18 year olds
A LEVEL
(Advanced Level Certificate of Education)
Key Stage 1
Year 2 - 7 year olds
Key Stage 2
Year 6 - 11 year olds
Key Stage 3
Year 9 - 14 year olds
SATs
(National Curriculum Assessments)
used to assess the "attainment" of students
academic qualification assessed through two years of coursework & a final examination
2014 National Core Arts Standards Draft
> began February 2012
> writing teams for each of the arts disciplines (dance, media arts, music, theatre, visual arts)
> draft release June 2013, target for final documents is January 2014
>The National Art Education Association is among a number of governing organisations of the
National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS)
and leads the development of the visual arts standards through the visual arts writing team (Inhulsen & Levin, 2013).
> The National Coalition for Core Arts Standards was created for the purpose of reviewing the 1994 National Standards for Arts Education with the intent of creating the next generation of Core Art Standards (Inhulsen & Levin, 2013).
academic qualification for secondary education/ pre university
Concepts & Processes
1.1 Creativity

a. Producing imaginative images, artefacts and other outcomes that are both original and of value.
b. Exploring and experimenting with ideas, materials, tools and techniques.
c. Taking risks and learning from mistakes.

1.2 Competence

a. Investigating, analysing, designing, making, reflecting and evaluating effectively.
b. Making informed choices about media, techniques and processes.

1.3 Cultural understanding

a. Engaging with a range of images and artefacts from different contexts, recognising the varied characteristics of different cultures and using them to inform their creating and making.
b. Understanding the role of the artist, craftsperson and designer in a range of cultures, times and contexts.

1.4 Critical understanding

a. Exploring visual, tactile and other sensory qualities of their own and others’ work.
b. Engaging with ideas, images and artefacts, and identifying how values and meanings are conveyed. c. Developing their own views and expressing reasoned judgements.
d. Analysing and reflecting on work from diverse contexts

2.1 Explore and create

Pupils should be able to:
a. develop ideas and intentions by working from first-hand observation, experience, inspiration, imagination and other sources
b. investigate how to express and realise ideas using formal elements and the qualities of a range of media
c. make purposeful images and artefacts, selecting from a range of materials, techniques and processes
d. draw to express perception and invention, to communicate feelings, experiences and ideas, and for pleasure
e. explore and develop ideas using sketchbooks, journals and other appropriate strategies.

2.2 Understand and evaluate

Pupils should be able to:
a. use research and investigative skills appropriate to art, craft and design
b. appreciate how codes and conventions are used to convey ideas and meanings in and between different cultures and contexts
c. reflect on and evaluate their own and others’ work, adapting and refining their own images and artefacts at all stages of the creative process
d. analyse, select and question critically, making reasoned choices when developing personal work
e. develop ideas and intentions when creating images and artefacts
f. organise and present their own material and information in appropriate forms.

NCCAS governing organisations are:
American Alliance for Theatre and Education
Arts Education Partnership
Educational Theatre Association
The College Board
The National Association for Music Education
National Dance Education Organisation
National Media Arts Representatives
and of course
the National Art Education Association

Role of the Teacher as per the new Curriculum...
The Visual Arts writing team members include:
Dennis Inhulsen
- president of the Nation Art Education Association and Principal of Patterson Elementary School in Michigan
Kristine Alexander
- from California State university
September Buys
, Greenville Middle School, Michigan
Susan J. Gabbard
, Oklahoma City Public Schools, Oklahoma
Olivia Gude
, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Art and Design, Illinois
Debra Hannu
, Duluth Public Schools, Minnesota
Elizabeth Logan
, Auburn Junior High School, Alabama
Vanessa Lopez
, Baltimore City Public Schools, Maryland
Cheryl Maney
, Charlotte Mecklenberg Schools, North Carolina
Scott Russell
, Loudoun County Public Schools, Virginia
Marilyn Stewart
, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Department of Art Education and Crafts, Pennsylvania
Joyce Huser
, Kansas State Department of Education, Kansas
Kathi R. Levin
, NAEA Project Consultant and NCCAS Leadership team (Inhulsen & Levin, 2013).

(Author, Speaker, Government advisor for Arts Education)
"YADA YADA YADA"
These members of the writing team are art educators from around the United states who are said by the president of the NAEA to have “different backgrounds, different beliefs, and different approaches to teaching and learning about art” (Inhulsen, 2013).
> the National Core Arts Standards are open for public review
> the first review took place in June 2013, writing teams are now revising based on feedback
> the standards will be posted to an online site
> these standards are not a curriculum, they are a statement of the goals that a curriculum seeks to achieve, a framework of expectations within which to construct a curriculum (N/A, 1996)
> According to the NAEA, the standards are being written to build on the foundation created by the 1994 document, support 21st century needs of students and teachers, help ensure all students are college and career ready, and affirm the place of arts education in a balanced core curriculum (National Art Education Association, 2013)
Conceptual Framework for the National Arts Standards

“arts inform our lives with meaning every time we experience the joy of a well-remembered song, experience the flash of inspiration that comes with immersing ourselves in an artist’s sculpture, enjoying a sublime dance, learning from an exciting animation, or being moved by a captivating play” (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013)
> The document states that “these standards are being crafted to guide arts curriculum, instruction, and assessment in American schools” (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013). They emphasise the process-oriented nature of the arts and arts learning, by placing artistic processes at the forefront
> The National Core Arts Standards are centred around ‘philosophical foundations’ and ‘lifelong goals’ (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013).
These foundations and goals are:

The Arts as communication
- the arts provide unique symbol system and metaphors that convey and inform life experience/ students express and communicate their own ideas and interpret the artistic communications of others

The arts as creative personal realisation
- enables individuals to discover and develop their own creative capacity

The arts as culture, history and connectors
- understanding artwork provides insights into individuals own and others cultures and societies / artistically literate citizens know and understand artwork from varied historical periods and cultures

Arts as means to wellbeing
- participation in the arts enhances mental, physical and emotional well-being/ artistically literate citizens find joy, inspiration, peace, intellectual stimulation, meaning and other life-enhancing qualities through participation in all of the arts

The arts as community engagement
- the arts provide means for individuals to collaborate and connect with others in an enjoyable inclusive environment / artistically literate citizens seek artistic experience and support the arts in their local, state, national and global communities
(National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013)

New Conservative Education Secretary Michael Gove wants to overhaul the English National Curriculum, focusing on core subjects English, Maths & Science in a 1950's style
- ex soldiers as teachers will be good for school discipline
- failure in examinations is an incentive for students to achieve
- science, history, geography are more important than art, music & design
- its poor teaching, not environmental deprevation that leads to low achievement in schools
Artistic Processes
> According to the conceptual framework document (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013)
- Creating is defined as conceiving and developing new artistic ideas and work
- Presenting is defined for visual arts as interpreting and sharing work
- Responding is defined as interacting with and reflecting on artistic work and performances to develop understanding

> Sample model cornerstone assessments will be provided within the standards to provide examples and illustrate the type of evidence needed to show attainment of the standards and desired learning, they recur over grades 2, 5 and 8, and assess understanding and transfer via genuine performance.

- 2007-2008 GFC severely hits the UK, the Labour party loses power and
is replaced by PM David Cameron and the Conservatives
- 2010 “The Age of Austerity” David Cameron tries to reduce the financial deficit by severely cutting government funding to several sectors, such as Education.
Visual Arts Standards
http://nccas.wikispaces.com/Visual+Arts+Standards
> PreK through to grade 8 / high school will be achievement bands (proficient, accomplished, advanced)
> The draft documents for visual arts consist of separate standards for each artistic process with the following process components:
Creating:
- Experiment/ Imagine/ Identify (x2)
- Investigate/ Plan/ Make (x5)
- Reflect/ Refine/ Continue (x2)
- Connect/ Create Lifelong Learning (x2)
Presenting:
- Select/ Analyse (x2)
- Prepare/ Curate (x1)
- Exhibit/ Share (x2)
Responding:
- Analyse/ Interpret (x4)
- Critique/ Evaluate (x1)
- Communicate/ Internalise (x1)
(National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013)


- 2010 Riots in London & Parliament as standard university fees are tripled from approx £3,000 to £9,000 per year
- 2013 Conservative Education Secretary Michael Gove overhauls the National Curriculum back to a “1950’s style” of “mastery & excellence”, nine year olds will once again have to learn their twelve times tables.
Limitations with the Visual Arts Standards
> I understand that these are standards and meant to be used as a springboard for teachers to write curriculum, however, there are a number of problems or limitations in my view:
- the process of creating, presenting and responding is very linear, and doesn't allow for more sophisticated understandings of the visual arts
- highly focused on the students subjective experience, visual arts is seen as personal, imaginative and as an experience
- highly focused on process oriented learning
- the only art historical and critical content is seen through the “essential questions” which addresses elements of artists practice, however it is still focused on imagination and subjective experience and choices artists make in terms of their art making
- art making seems to be solely focused on the students immediate environment
- having standards for specific grades under specific artistic processes is more limiting to me than enabling for teachers
- emphasis on students reflecting on their own work and collaborative reflection among students, this is seen as the end point and not a continual process
- focus on the student, not on the teacher, rather provides overriding ‘enduring understandings’ and ‘essential questions’ that the teacher is supposed to ensure in order for students to be ‘artistically literate’
- the structure is very unclear as to how you are meant to combine all the standards within the three artistic processes for each grade level and process component

What Michael Gove means for Art & Deisgn in the National Curriculum?
The 'Common Core' Arts Framework Matrix
AGES 7 - 11 Students will be taught the "mastery" of drawing, painting & sculpture
Maintain sketchbooks
Focus on great artists from history

AGES 11 - 14 Students will be taught a range of multimedia techniques & the
history of of artistic, architectural, and design movements
IN
vague references to "develop creativity and imagination"
OUT
“an artistic literate person understands that each arts discipline employs unique sign and symbol systems to make and express means... Visual artists must understand the nuance of colour, line, texture and form to successfully create and communicate” (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013)
Implications of the Standards

> far more comprehensive than the 1994 standards where there are only six content standards for each stage K-4, 5-8 and 9-12
> these standards are still not clear from grades 9-12, does this mean they will be basic achievement outcomes and not specified standards for each grade of 9, 10, 11 and 12?
> In the conceptual framework document, it explicitly states that
“children’s access to arts education as part of their core education continues to be uneven... Some local education agencies currently offer a full, balanced education that includes rich and varied arts opportunities for their students. However, too many schools have succumbed to funding challenges or embraced a narrow focus on tested subjects, resulting in minimal, if any arts experiences for the children they serve” (National Coalition for Core Arts Standards, 2013).
> Arts is still not a core or mandatory subject across any year level.
> technically open to interpretation when states and schools write their visual arts curriculum because they are not mandatory and seen as a foundation to adapt or adopt into curriculum

I am looking forward to hearing your responses as to what you think are the strengths and weaknesses of the National Standards, and the issues these standards have.

ATTAINMENT TARGET LEVELS
PRIMARY
Dorn, C. (2005). The End of Art in Education. Art Education, 58 (6), 42- 51.

Herberholz, B. (2010). When We Review National Visual Arts Standards. Arts and Activities, 148 (1), 18.

Inhulsen, D., Levin, K. (2013). National Visual Arts Standards Update Moves Forward in 2013. National Art Education Association, 55 (2), 9.

Inhulsen, D. (2013). The Privilege of Writing Next Generation Visual Arts Standards. National Art Education Association, 55 (3), 2.

N/A. (1996). Setting the Record Straight: Give and Take on the National Standards for Arts Education. Arts Education Policy Review, 97 (5), 29-37.

National Coalition for Core Arts Standards. (2013). National Core Arts Standards. Retrieved from http://nccas.wikispaces.com/file/view/Framework%20Matrix%20June14.13Final.pdf/438719476/Framework%20Matrix%20June14.13Final.pdf

National Coalition for Core Arts Standards. (2013). National Core Arts Standards: A Conceptual Framework for Arts Learning. Retrieved from http://nccas.wikispaces.com/file/view/Framework%207-10-13%20FINAL.pdf/441178942/Framework%207-10-13%20FINAL.pdf

National Art Education Association. (2013). New Coalition will lead the revision of the National Standards for Arts Education. Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/research/nccas

National Art Education Association. (1994). The National Visual Arts Standards. Reston: National Art Education Association.

National Coalition for Core Arts Standards. (2013). Visual Arts Standards. Retrieved from http://nccas.wikispaces.com/Visual+Arts+Standards

Purcell, T., Mahlmann, J., Wills, B., Hatfield, T., & Peeno, L. (1996). National Standards: A View from the Arts Education Associations. Arts Education Policy Review, 97 (5), 8-14.

USA
What are the strengths and weaknesses of each national curriculum?
What are the differences between the three national curriculums?
What is the danger of putting all the ‘arts’ subjects together?
Level 1
Pupils respond to ideas. They use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings, and design and make images and artefacts. They describe what they think or feel about their own and others' work.

Level 2
Pupils explore ideas. They investigate and use a variety of materials and processes to communicate their ideas and meanings, and design and make images and artefacts. They comment on differences in others' work, and suggest ways of improving their own.

Level 3
Pupils explore ideas and collect visual and other information for their work. They investigate visual and tactile qualities in materials and processes, communicate their ideas and meanings, and design and make images and artefacts for different purposes. They comment on similarities and differences between their own and others' work, and adapt and improve their own.

SECONDARY
Level 4
Pupils use a variety of approaches to explore and experiment with ideas, information and
resources in order to develop their intentions. They investigate and develop a range of practical skills and use the qualities of materials and processes purposefully to suit their intentions when designing and making. They compare and comment on differing ideas, methods and approaches used by artists, craftspeople and designers, relating these to the contexts in which the work was made. They discuss their own work and that of others and consider how they might adapt and refine their ideas, skills and processes.

Level 5
Pupils take some creative risks when exploring, experimenting and responding to ideas and selecting information and resources in order to develop their work. When designing and making, they develop and use their technical knowledge and skills to manipulate the qualities of materials, processes and the formal elements appropriately. They consider and discuss the ideas, methods and approaches that are used by artists, craftspeople and designers, relating these to both context and purpose. They evaluate their own work and that of others, reflecting on their own view of its purpose and meaning. They are able to adapt and refine their ideas, processes and intentions.

Level 6
Pupils accept creative risks, exploring and experimenting with ideas independently and inventively and using a range of appropriate resources imaginatively to develop, design and make work. They apply their technical knowledge and skills to realise their intentions, using the qualities of materials, processes and the formal elements effectively. They interpret and explain how ideas and meanings are conveyed by artists, craftspeople and designers, recognising the varied characteristics of different historical, social and cultural contexts. They provide a reasoned evaluation of the purpose and meaning of their own work and that of others. They use their critical understanding to develop their own views and practice.

Level 7
Pupils learn from taking creative risks that help them to form and develop their ideas and to create purposeful, imaginative work with some originality. They demonstrate confident understanding and use of materials, processes and the formal elements, combining these thoughtfully to realise their intentions. They analyse and comment on their own and others’ work, appreciating how codes and conventions are used to express ideas in different genres, styles and traditions. They explain how and why their understanding of the work of others affects their own ideas, values and practice.

Level 8
Pupils develop, express and realise ideas in often original ways, confidently exploiting what they learn from taking creative risks and from their understanding of creative processes. They exploit the potential of materials and processes independently, making both intuitive and analytical judgements to develop and realise their intentions. They analyse, engage with, and question critically aspects of their own and others’ work, identifying how beliefs, values and meanings are expressed and shared. They confidently express reasoned judgements about their own work and that of others, demonstrating analytical, critical and contextual understanding.

UK
The National Curriculum:
https://www.gov.uk/national-curriculum/key-stage-3-4

The Guardian: Michael Gove's new curriculum: what the experts say
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/feb/12/roundtable-draft-national-curriculum
The Independent: Gove's new National Curriculum demands too much, too young
http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/goves-new-national-curriculum-demands-too-much-too-young-8553593.html
The Telegraph: The revised National Curriculum: subject by subject
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10166742/The-revised-national-curriculum-subject-by-subject.html
Sir Ken Robinson on "School Kill Creativity"
http:/www.youtube,com/watch?v=fuG7bSZHsHw
Sir Ken Robinson "Creativity, Learning & The Curriculum"
http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X0CESnGQ8U
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2644911/GCSEs-fail-to-stretch-brightest-pupils-say-headmistress-of-top-school.html
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8270189/hot-the-national-curriculum-has-evolved.htm

Children Failed by Labor's Education Reforms:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8269906/National-curriculum-review-children-failed-by-Labours-education-reforms-says-Gove.html

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2358011/New-curriculum-lessons-3D-painting-pupils-aged-FIVE-taught-programming.html
http://theguardian.com/polictics/2001/may23/labour.tonyblair.html

UK in Global League Tables:
http://www.theguardian.com/news/alltablog/2010/dec/07/worlds-education-rankings-maths-science-reading.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-20498356
Full transcript