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HIV

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Mario Jimenez

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of HIV

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Human immunodeficiency virus HIV What is HIV? When was the first case of HIV reported? How many types of HIV are there? How is HIV transmitted? HIV is not spread through: How does it reproduce? HIV is a virus that weakens the body's immune system, which is the body's defense system. HIV causes AIDS, a disease that hurts the body's ability to fight infection and certain cancers. In the USA the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. There are two types of HIV:
HIV-1
HIV-2 Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV-1, and generally when people refer to HIV without specifying the type of virus they will be referring to HIV-1.


http://www.avert.org/hiv-types.htm The relatively uncommon HIV-2 type is concentrated in West Africa and is rarely found elsewhere.

It seems that HIV-2 is less easily transmitted, and the period between initial infection and illness is longer in the case of HIV-2.


http://www.avert.org/hiv-types.htm Most common
Having sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a person who has HIV
Sharing needles with someone who has HIV, such as when using drugs
Pregnancy, labor, birth, or breastfeeding if a mother has HIV Less common
Blood transfusion from an HIV positive blood donor, which is very unlikely today because U.S. blood banks test donated blood for HIV
Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The blood in a caregiver's mouth can mix with food while chewing. This is rare and has only been noted among infants whose HIV positive caregiver gave them pre-chewed food.
Using a dirty tattooing needle (if it was used before on someone with HIV). Make sure the needle is new.
Sharing a toothbrush or razor with someone who has HIV Kissing (there is a small chance of getting HIV from open-mouthed or "French" kissing if there's contact with blood)
Touching, hugging, or handshakes
Sharing food or drinks
Sharing food utensils, towels and bedding, telephones, or toilet seats
Donating blood
Working with or being around someone with HIV
Biting insects, such as mosquitoes
Swimming pools or drinking fountains
Playing sports What type of virus is HIV? HIV belongs to a class of viruses known as retroviruses. Retroviruses are viruses that contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. After infecting a cell, HIV uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and then proceeds to replicate itself using the cell's machinery. Within the retrovirus family, HIV belongs to a subgroup known as lentiviruses, or "slow" viruses. Lentiviruses are known for having a long time period between initial infection and the beginning of serious symptoms. This is why there are many people who are unaware of their HIV infection, and unfortunately, can spread the virus to others. 1.Fusion of the HIV cell to the host cell surface.
2.HIV RNA, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and other viral proteins enter the host cell.
3.Viral DNA is formed by reverse transcription.
4.Viral DNA is transported across the nucleus and integrates into the host DNA.
5.New viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and to make viral proteins.
6.New viral RNA and proteins move to cell surface and a new, immature, HIV virus forms.
7.The virus matures by protease releasing individual HIV proteins. Are there any cure HIV patients? How many cases of HIV are estimated each year? The epidemic continues to devastate the United States and the international community with an average of 50,000 new HIV infections each year in the United States, nearly 3 million new cases occur worldwide each year as well, and an estimated 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Who is in risk of getting infected? African Americans are most at risk among all other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. as well as the world. In 2009, 44% of all new cases in the U.S. were African-Americans. Next is gay and bisexual men,
and intravenous drug users. Celebrities with HIV. The most notable, if not the face of AIDS Prevention is the NBA Legend Magic Johnson.Johnson announced in 1991 that he had developed HIV and has been successfully fighting the disease for the past 20 years. Olympic diver Greg Louganis is also HIV positive. The virus has killed any number of stars, including Rock Hudson, rock singer Freddie Mercury and tennis star Arthur Ashe. What about a cure? As of now, there is no known cure for HIV/AIDS. Although antiretroviral treatment can suppress HIV and can delay the illness for many years, it cannot clear the virus completely. Drugs need to be taken every day for the rest of your life, some of which have bad side effects on the user. Access to these treatments is almost impossible for patients in third-world countries. What are the symptoms from HIV. Many people do not develop symptoms after getting infected with HIV. Some people have a flu-like illness within several days to weeks after exposure to the virus. They complain of fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph glands in the neck. These symptoms usually disappear on their own within a few weeks. Once the immune system weakens, a person infected with HIV can develop the following symptoms: Lack of energy
Weight loss
Frequent fevers and sweats
Persistent or frequent yeast infections Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin
Short-term memory loss
Mouth, genital, or anal sores from herpes infections. Since yeast prefers to live in warm, moist, and dark areas of the body, the groin is a prime location for an overgrowth and subsequent infection. In women this usually results in an infection in the vagina; in men, the yeast may grow under the penis, around the scrotum, or even underneath foreskin at the tip of the penis. Usually the infection will involve the penis, but it may also affect the creases of the legs and behind the scrotum as well. What are some illness after getting AIDS? Cough and shortness of breath.
Seizures and lack of coordination.
Difficult or painful swallowing.
Mental symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness.
Severe and persistent diarrhea.
Fever.
Vision loss.
Nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting.
Weight loss and extreme fatigue.
Severe headaches with neck stiffness. People with AIDS are prone to develop various cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Kaposi sarcoma causes round, brown, reddish or purple spots that develop in the skin or in the mouth. After the diagnosis of AIDS is made, the average survival time has been estimated to be 2-3 years. http://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/guide/hiv-symptoms http://www.health.com/health/gallery/0,,20539037,00.html Where did HIV come from? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was detected in a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (How he became infected is not known.) Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggested that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/definitions.htm But... What is the size of an HIV particle? An HIV particle is around 100-150 billionths of a metre in diameter. That's about the same as:
0.1 microns
4 millionths of an inch
one twentieth of the length of an E. coli bacterium
one seventieth of the diameter of a human CD4+ white blood cell. http://www.avert.org/hiv-virus.htm THE END
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