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Sharon A. Nelson: Factors Influencing Young Children's Motives and Outcomes as Moral Criteria

Experiment Presentation
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AncientGear Golem

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Sharon A. Nelson: Factors Influencing Young Children's Motives and Outcomes as Moral Criteria

Study 1 Study 2 Sharon A. Nelson Factors Influencing Young Children's
Use of Motives and Outcomes
as Moral Criteria AICE QUESTIONS Results Realisation Procedure Aims In the experiment, Nelson wanted to explain the moral development of children through the use of their interpretation of the stories provided. Subjects - 60 preschool children (b/w 3 & 4 years) + 30 2nd grade children (b/w 6 & 8 years)
- Approximately
- Mostly white and middle-class from an urban area
- Parental consent was given Independent variables The stories given to the children - Good Motive/Good Outcome -Good Motive/ Bad Outcome -Bad Motive/ Good Outcome - Bad Motive/ Bad Outcome Materials - Stories - Good Motive/Good Outcome -Bad Motive/ Good Outcome - Bad Motive/ Bad Outcome -Good Motive/ Bad Outcome Methods/Procedures 2 levels of motive & 2 levels of outcome combined in a "throwing the ball" scenerio
Good motive: Boy is playing with ball and notices that his friend doesn't have something to play with so he throws the ball at him to play
Bad motive: The boy is playing with the ball and since he was very mad at his friend that day, he wanted to throw the ball at him so that he could hit him
good outcome: the boy threw the ball and his friend caught it
bad outcome: the boy threw the ball, his his friend's head and he started to cry
2 sets of black & white pictures were used to follow the 4 stories.
The scale was arranged in terms of smiley faces
20 children per group in the 3-year old level & 10 children per group in the 7 year old group
the children were interviewed separately
at beginning of session, the children were familiarized with the scale
In the experimental session children were told to listen to the story and later were asked to rate how good or bad the lttle boy was
in both picture-presentation conditions, the drawings were introduced one by on at appropriate points in the story and placed side by side in front of the child
Children were also asked to recall the valence of motive and outcome - Pictures - 2 Sets of 25-cm X 23-cm drawings -The first set contained pictures that implied positive and negative motives through the actor's facial expressions. - The second set contained pictures that connected a thought bubble to the actor's head to the goals he intended to achieve. Results Subjects - 27 preschool boys and girls - Randomly assigned to three
presentation group Methods/Procedures - Materials and procedures were identical with those in study 1 Results - Good motives were rated
more positively than bad outcomes 2)From the study by Nelson (children’s morals):
(a) Describe the pictures in the motive-
implicit condition. [2]
The pictures were all in black and white and were arranged in 25cm X 25cm drawing illustrating motive, the behavior and the outcome in each story. Positive and negative merely implied by the actor's facial expressions.


- Judgements made in the verval-presentation sondition were less influenced by motive than those in the picture conditions - Children made more errors recalling story information in good motive stories when outcomes were bad. - Children made more errors in bad motive stories when outcome were good. - Good motives were rated
more positively than bad outcomes - Judgements made in the verval-presentation sondition were less influenced by motive than those in the picture conditions - Children made more errors recalling story information in good motive stories when outcomes were bad. - Children made more errors in bad motive stories when outcome were good. Study 2 Study 1 Discussion (b) Explain what was different about the pictures in the motive-explicit condition. [2]
In this experimental condition, positive and negative motives are conveyed explicitly by connecting to the actor's head cartoon-like representations of the goal he intended to achieve. Francisco Lujan
Manuela Zapata
p. 3 - This study contributes to the nature/ nurture debate in the sense that it shows that children learn their moral values through the use of motives and outcomes. However, by indicating that children are more sensitive to the negative motive this study suggests that children may be more sensitive to negative motives and outcomes because of nature. Therefore, this study can give mre support to the nurture side of the argument but it can support the nature argument as well. -For 3-year olds in the verbal-only condition, motive rather than outcome had a larger effect on their judgments
-There were more errors made in recalling motives and outcomes for the 3-year olds than for the 7-year olds. Dependent Variables - Recall for children's story information - The children's judgement of the little boy in

the stories 2 levels of motive & 2 levels of outcome combined in a "throwing the ball" scenerio.Good motive: Boy is playing with ball and notices that his friend doesn't have something to play with so he throws the ball at him to play. Bad motive: The boy is playing with the ball and since he was very mad at his friend that day, he wanted to throw the ball at him so that he could hit him good outcome: the boy threw the ball and his friend caught it bad outcome: the boy threw the ball, his his friend's head and he started to cry. 2 sets of black & white pictures were used to follow the 4 ley faces. 20 children per group in the 3-year old level & 10 children per group in the 7 year old group. the children were stories. The scale was arranged in terms of smiley faces. The children were interviewed separately. at beginning of session, children were familiarized with the scale. In the experimental session children were told to listen to the story and later were asked to rate how good or bad the lttle boy was. in both picture-presentation conditions, the drawings were introduced one by on at appropriate points in the story and placed side by side in front of the child. Children were also asked to recall the valence of motive and outcome
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