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Formal Models

Chapter 3 Theories of Educational Leadership and Management Tony Bush

Quinton Donahue

on 26 January 2013

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Transcript of Formal Models

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Images from Shutterstock.com Common Features of Formal Models Organizations are treated as systems Types of Formal Models These five theories tend to overlap a great
deal. They differ by variation of emphasis.
Structural Models
Systems Models
Bureaucratic Models
Rational Models
Hierarchical Models Bureaucracy is resilient and is being reinforced by new public management.
(Fitzgerald, 2009: 63-4)

Recent stress of standards within schools has reemphasized a formal structure.

However, the dominance of hierarchy is compromised by the expertise of the professional staff.

Organizational goals are challenged by those who point out the existence of multiple objectives in education and contradictions between individual, departmental and school-wide levels. Conclusion FORMAL MODELS
Chapter 3 Presentation by Quinton Donahue Organizations are hierarchical systems using rational
means to pursue goals.

Leaders within organizations are given
legitimized authority through their positions. The Formal Model Perspective Prominence given to official organizational structure Official structures tend to be hierarchical Schools are viewed as goal-seeking organizations Leadership decisions are made through a rational process Leadership authority is based on position Organization is accountable to its sponsoring body Structural Models These models examine the pattern of relationships formed between people in organizations and how they relate in order to achieve organizational objectives. (Bush, 1997: 45) The Five Main Structural Levels The Central Level
(National & State Gov't)

The Local Level
(Local & District Authorities)

The Institution
(Schools Themselves) Sub-Units

Individual Level
(Teachers & Students) Systems Models These models emphasize the unity within an organization and focus on interactions between its parts and the external environment. Closed Systems Try to minimize interactions with the external environment and take little account of outside opinions. Open Systems Encourage environmental
interaction and respond to external influences. Bureaucratic Models This model is associated with the work of Max Weber. Who stated that bureaucratic administration is "the most rational means of carrying out imperative control over human beings." (Weber, 1989: 16) The Features of a Bureaucratic Approach Hierarchical Authority Structure
Emphasizes Goal Orientation
Suggests a Division of Labor
Decisions Governed by Rules & Regulations
Emphasize Impersonal Relationships
Progress is Determined by Merit Rational Models These models emphasize the managerial process rather than organizational structure and goals. Perception of Problem Analysis of Problem Formulation of Alternatives Choice of Solution Implementation of Solution Evaluation of Effectiveness Hierarchical Models These models stress vertical relationships within organizations. Leaders are accountable to external forces. Packwood (1989) suggests that although horizontal communication plays a role within a hierarchy it is used mainly for coordination rather than management. Aspects of Formal Models in Schools Goals Structure Environment Leadership Educational leaders should keep fundamental purposes in mind. (Begley, 2008)

"Goal setting should take into account the interests of the children, their abilities, the peculiarities of the social environment." (Fishman, 1999) Goals Work of teachers and staff defined by their role within structure.

Staff and teachers accountable to principal, who is accountable to superintendent, who is accountable to the school board. Structure Closed Systems - Accountability is emphasized more towards school officials rather than students and parents

Open Systems - Are interactive and respond to the changing environment while communicating with the local community. Environment The person at the apex of the hierarchy sets the tone of the organization.

Principals and superintendents are the public face of the organization and are expected to behave accordingly. Leadership Leaders focus on functions, tasks, and behaviors, which drive the work of others in the organization. (Leithwood et al., 1999: 14)

Examples of managerial functions for school principals are:
input controls
behavior controls
output controls
(Myers & Murphy, 1995: 14) Managerial Leadership Limitations of Formal Models It may be unrealistic to characterize schools as goal orientated. Is decision making really a rational process? The contribution of individuals may be underestimated or ignored. It is assumed that power resides at the apex of the pyramid. Formal models are based on the assumption that organizations are relatively stable. References Bush, T. (2010). Theories of educational leadership and management. (Fourth Edition ed.). London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd. Theories of Educational Leadership and Management by Tony Bush
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