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Second-wave Feminism 1960-1970
Transcript of Second-wave Feminism 1960-1970
Protesting Miss America Pageant
Coretta Scott King
Best Seller that laid groundwork for second-wave feminism
NOW Feminist Organization
Second-wave feminism widened the range of issues including sexuality, the work place, reproductive rights, family, de facto inequalities and official legal inequalities. The second wave of feminism also focused on the battle against domestic violence with proposals for marital rape laws, the establishment of rape crisis and battered women's shelters and the call for changes in custody and divorce law.
Intro: Second-wave Feminism
A women was expected to follow one path, marry in their early 20’s, start a family right away, and to devote their lives to homemaking.
Spending an average of 55 hours a week on house hold chores
Women had no right to their husband’s earrings
Men monitored the women’s property and earnings
38% of American women that worked in the 60’s were mostly limited to jobs such as teaching, nurse, and secretary.
6% were doctors
3% were lawyers
Less than 1% were engineers
Working women were paid lower salaries than men
Denied opportunities to move up
Mainly because they thought that the women would become pregnant and quiet her job.
And unlike the man they didn’t have a family to support
Vision and motivation
The feminist movement of the 60’s and 70’s original focus was on dismantling workplace inequality, such as denial to better jobs and salaries, via anti-discrimination laws.
In 64 the Representative Howard Smith of Virginia proposed adding prohibition on gender discrimination into the Civil Rights Act
After World War 2 2/3 of all job opening went to women.
What opened the door for women to pursue professional careers was access to the PILL, meaning that they could complete years of training and studying and launch a career without the interruption of pregnancy.
A wave of young women started applying to medical, law, and business school
Goals and Objectives
Report of Presidental Commission on the status of women found discrimination against women in every aspect of American life and outlined plans to establish fair hiring practices, paid maternity leave and affordable childcare.
Equal Pay Act became law, although it did not cover all executives and administrators initially and was ammended in 1972
Timeline of Second-wave Feminism
Second-wave Feminism 1960-1970
Second-wave feminism greatly changed the way America viewed women. Women established their independence and proved they were no longer going to put up with gender inequality. They also changed they way women were portrayed in the media by rejecting the stereotypical ways women were used to represent sexuality. They paved the way for women to use their full potential without fear of persecution.
The first wave of feminism focused on mostly the woman's right to vote and gender equality. The second wave brought into focus many other issues that had yet to be taken under consideration by our society and government.
The women’s movement used different means to strive for equality, trying to get congress to change laws.
They published issues of rape and domestic violence through the media
Trying to raise awareness and show how feminism could help
Protests would consist of putting sexist stickers on offensive ads
Sit-ins at local media outlets
Sometimes the protests got out of hand like the 1968 demonstration at the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City.
The women were waving derogatory signs like “Up Against the Wall, Miss America”
Griswold vs. Connecticut- Supreme Court struck down the law restricting access of contraception for married couple
Weeks vs. Southern Bell- winning the fight against restrictive labor laws and company regulations on the hours and conditions of women’s work in the US and opening many jobs that were slated for men only.
The National Organization for Women, known as NOW, was founded
Betty Friedan became the first president
Barbra Jordan was elected to the Texas Senate
NARAL Pro-Choice America, then was called The National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (NARAL) was founded
Now Activists marched into Washington D.C. for Mother’s Day, demanding “Rights, Not Roses”
Members of NOW stood up in the Senate gallery and demand attention for the Equal Rights Amendment.
The North American Indian Women’s Association was founded
"We believe that a true partnership between the sexes demands a different concept of marriage, an equitable sharing of the responsibilities of home and children and of the economic burdens of their support. We believe that proper recognition should be given to the economic and social values of homemaking and child care."
NOW mission statement
President Johnson amended Executive Order 11246, dealt with affirmative action, including the sex discrimination and the employment discrimination of women
NOW began petitions to the EECO to end the sex-segregated want ads and adoption a Bill of Rights for Women.
Senator Eugene McCarthy introduced the Equal Right Amendment in the U.S. Senate
Shirley Chisholm was the first African-American woman elected in to the U.S. House of Representatives
Now formed a special committee to launch a major campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law, which barred employment discrimination.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was established.
Haven House in California became the worlds first modern women's shelter in the world.