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German Grammar

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John Doe

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of German Grammar

German
The German cases...
Nominative case
is used for subjects and predicate nominatives.
I
am the best
person
in the world!!!
You
have a large ego.
A subject is the main noun (or pronoun) of a sentence that performs the verb. Ask yourself; what is performing the verb?
Mike likes ice cream.
I wonder if he's lactose intolerant?
"I" is the subject
, while "he" is mentioned, "I" performs the verb "wonder".
A predicate nominative is the noun (or pronoun) taking the action of the verb. They are used to describe the
subject
of a sentence. Ask yourself; what noun is receiving the verb & describes the subject?
Predicate nominatives are only found with a form of "be" or, auf Deutsch, "sein"!!!
I am an awesome
person
!
You are a good optometrist.
Optometrist is the answer
, it takes the action of "are" and describes "You".
Ich bin ein Berliner.
Kannst du Deutsch sprechen?
Du
Ich brauche einen Haarschnitt.
There is no predicate nominative.
Note:
"Person" is reflexive of the subject "I". It can be restated:
subjects
predicate nominative
"Mike" performs the verb "like".
"Person" takes the action of "am" and describes "I".
Berliner
Find the predicate nominatives...
Find the subject...
Accusative case
is used for direct objects and objects of accusative prepositions.
Dative case
is used for indirect objects, objects of dative prepositions, and direct objects of dative verbs.
A direct object is a noun (or pronoun) that receives the action of a verb. A direct object is
found with any verb but a form of "be" or "sein"
.
Grandma has a small
house
.
She lives
over
the river and
through
the woods.
direct object
prepositions
Santa makes many
toys
.
"Toys" is the DO, it receives the action of the verb "make".
Note,
in English
the sentence cannot be restated:
Toys makes Santa.
Find the direct objects...
Paula rides the bike with great skill.
Blumen kaufe ich.
Johann macht Hausaufgaben nach der Schule.
Ask yourself, what takes the action of the verb? (the verb that isn't "sein")
Hast du einen Regenschirm?
"Bike" is the direct object.
Paula is the subject performing the verb "ride" and "bike" is receiving that verb. "Skill" is another noun, but it is not receiving the verb.
Blumen
; "ich" is not being bought by "Blumen"
Regenschirm
Prepositions are connecting words showing the relation of a noun (or pronoun) to some other word.
Prepositions are always paired with a noun. The noun (called the "object of the preposition") and preposition together form a prepositional phrase.
prepositions
prepositional phrases
above
at
for
with
after
before
under
at home
for those people
with ketchup
after school
before 9 o'clock
above the clouds
under the table
through
against
through the door
against the opponent
In the German language, objects of certain prepositions will always be in the accusative case.
These are the accusative prepositions:
in
in the story
Find the prepositional phrases...
I should do my homework before dinner.
"Before"
is the preposition, and
"dinner"
is the object of the preposition (or the OP)
Ich habe meine Familie besucht.
Familie
Backt meine Oma einen Kuchen für mich?
Ich gehe durch den Tunnel.
"Durch"
is the preposition, and
"Tunnel"
is the OP.
"Für"
is the preposition, and
"mich"
is the OP.
durch
für
gegen
ohne
um
through
for
against
without
around/ about
Note:
Objects of prepositions cannot be predicate nominatives, direct objects, or indirect objects. Their case depends solely on the type of preposition in the prepositional phrase.
I bought my
mother
flowers.
She sent her
friend
a letter.
indirect objects
An indirect object is a noun (or pronoun) that receives the action of the verb indirectly. It is found only with a direct object, and cannot exist in a sentence on its own.
How to find an indirect object:
1. Is there another noun, besides the subject, direct object, and any prepositional phrase objects?
2. Does the noun answer the question: to whom or for whom?
Subject:
I
Direct Object:
email
Indirect Object:
to whom? her
Grandma baked
us
some cookies.
It indirectly receives the verb "bake".
It is a pronoun that isn't the subject or direct object.
It answers the question "for whom?"
"Us" is the indirect object:
Find the indirect objects...
His parents bought him a new car.
Der Osterhase bringt den Kindern Bonbons.
Meine Mutter kocht uns Abendessen.
Ich habe meinem Vater eine Krawatte gekauft.
As with the accusative case, there are prepositions whose objects are always in the dative case.
These are the dative prepositions:
aus
außer
bei
mit
von
nach
seit
zu
durch den Wald
für deinen Papa
gegen meinen Feind
ohne den Rechner
um die Ecke/ um sieben Uhr
out of/ from
except (for)/ but/ beside(s)
at/ near/ by
with
to (a city or country)/ after
since/ for (a time)
of/ from (used with "zu")
to (a generic place)/ at (only with Hause)/ too
aus dem Fenster/ aus Amerika
außer dir
bei dem Markt
mit deiner Familie
nach New York/ nach Schule
seit dem Wochenende
nördlich von Berlin/ von der Bank zum Supermarkt
zu dem (zum) Restaurant/ zu Hause/
zu viel
Note:
The prepositions "zu", "bei", and "von" can form contractions (isn't, it's, etc.) with definite articles (words that mean "the").
zu dem
zu der
von dem
von der
zum
zur
vom
remains "von der"
It has been established that direct objects are in the accusative case in the German language. However, there are some verbs whose direct objects are always in the dative case (dative verbs).
helfen
to help
wehtun
Leid tun
danken
gefallen
to be pleasing to (to find pleasing)
to hurt
to be sorry (literally, to cause suffering)
to thank
Sie helfen mir.
Das Museum gefällt mir.
Die Fusse tun mir weh.
Es tut mir Leid. (It causes me suffering-- I'm sorry.)
Ich danke dir.
Nominative
subjects
predicate nominatives

direct objects
objects of accusative prepositions

Grammar
I sent her an email.
"Him"
is the indirect object.
Den Kindern
Uns
Meinem Vater
An awesome person is I!
In Review: Identify the case for each noun in the sentence...
Wir haben eine gute Idee!
Kann ich jetzt gehen?
Du sollst zum neuen Markt gehen.
Er ist bei der neuen Bank.
Hilft ihm mit seiner Arbeit!
Meine Schwester ist eine Lehrerin.
Können wir mit ihnen kommen?
Der Hund hat einen schlechten Geruch.
"Ihnen"
is the object of the preposition "mit" in the
dative
"Wir"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Ihm"
is the direct object of the verb "hilft" in the
dative
"Arbeit"
is the object of the preposition "mit" in the
dative
"Er"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Bank"
is the object of the preposition "bei" in the
dative
"Schwester"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Lehrerin"
is the predicate nominative of the verb "ist" in the
nominative
"Ich"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Wir"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Idee"
is the direct object

of the verb "haben" in the
accusative
"Hund"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Geruch"
is the direct object of the verb "hat" in the
accusative
"Du"
is the subject in the
nominative
"Markt"
is the object of the preposition "zu" in the
dative
The German articles.....
Definite articles
are used to indicate a specific noun. In English, the most common is "the".
Indefinite

articles
are used to indicate a non-specific noun. In English, the most common are "a" and "an".
The German definite article that means "the" is "der". The different genders and cases of nouns change the forms of "der". In German, the words for "der" change the same way as "dies" (these), "welch" (which), and "jede" (every).
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
d
er
dies
er
d
ie
dies
e
d
as
dies
es
d
ie
dies
e
d
en
dies
en
d
em
dies
em
d
er
dies
er
d
em
dies
em
d
en

dies
en
(with "n" after nouns)
d
ie
dies
e
d
as
dies
es
d
ie
dies
e
Along with the "der words", the endings of adjectives after these words change with gender and case of nouns.
Adjectives are words that describe a noun.
In German, the endings of adjectives change based on their preceding article, gender, and case.
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
der
dieser
die
diese
das
dieses
die
diese
den
diesen
dem
diesem
der
dieser
dem
diesem
den
diesen
(with "n" after nouns)
die
diese
das
dieses
die
diese
+e
+e
+e
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+e
+e
To change "der words" add the following highlighted endings:
This is a strange rule that applies when using the dative case for plural nouns. If using a dative, plural "der word" a letter "n" must be added to the end of the plural noun.
She makes the children cake.
Sie macht den Kinder
n
Kuchen.
Child is "Kind"
In the dative after "den", it is changed to
"Kindern"
Children is "Kinder"
No articles
can be found with nouns in some sentences.
Give a "der word" for the following sentences.....
(Consider gender and case of nouns.)
D__ Junge spielt mit dies__ Ball.
Welch__ Mädchen ist d__ Sieger?
D__ Mathelehrer hat d__ Rechner.
Examples of Adjectives:
colorful
bunt
red
rot
blue
blau
new
neu
old
alt
delicious
lecker
last
letzte
first
erste
good
gut
Example-
D
er
Junge braucht d
en
Bleistift.
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
der
dieser
die
diese
das
dieses
die
diese
den
diesen
dem
diesem
der
dieser
dem
diesem
den
diesen
(with "n" after nouns)
die
diese
das
dieses
die
diese
+e
+e
+e
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+e
+e
bad
schlecht
known
bekannt
Example-
Der klug
e
Junge braucht den gelb
en
Bleistift.
Add an adjective ending...
Der alt_ Mann ist der berühmt_ Albert Einstein.
Definite articles chart...
The German indefinite article that means "a" is "ein". The different genders and cases of nouns change the forms of "ein". In German, the words for "ein" change the same way as the word for none ("kein") and the possessive adjectives.
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
ein(
-
)
mein(
-
)
ein
e
mein
e
ein(
-
)
mein(
-
)
mein
e
ein
en
mein
en
ein
em
mein
em
ein
er
mein
er
ein
em
mein
em
mein
en
ein
e
mein
e
ein(
-
)
mein(
-
)
mein
e
To change "ein words" add the following highlighted endings:
Example-
Ein(
-
)
Junge braucht
ein
en
Bleistift
.
Note:
The "ein" words in the masculine nominative, neuter nominative, and neuter accusative remain "ein".
Along with the "ein words" the endings of adjectives after these words change with gender and case of nouns.
Example-
Ein klein
er
Junge braucht einen gelb
en
Bleistift.
German Pronouns
Pronouns are used in sentences to replace nouns. After a noun is repeatedly used in a group of sentences, pronouns are used for word variation. Examples of English pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, they...
Without pronouns:
Rob went home. Rob ate pizza for dinner, and then Rob watched TV.
With pronouns:
Rob went home. He ate pizza for dinner, and then he watched TV.
As with the English language, German pronouns change ("he" can change to "him"). The German pronouns change with the different cases.
English
German
Nominative
Accusative
Dative
I
you (singular informal)
he/ it
she/ it
it
we
you (plural informal)
you (singular & plural formal)
they
Note:
In the English language, there is only one word for "you". In German, there are different words for singular informal, plural informal, and formal.
Singular informal ("du") used to address friends, family, children, or students.
Mom says to child: "Are
you
hungry?"
Plural informal ("ihr") used to address a group of friends, family, children, or students.
Teacher says to class: "Do
you (all)
know the answer?"
Formal singular and plural ("Sie") the same word is used. It is used to address adults.
Adult says to another adult: "Nice to see
you
."
Note:
The words for "it" depend upon the noun that "it" is replacing. If the noun is masculine, it uses the "he" pronoun. If the noun is feminine, it uses the "she" pronoun. The neuter nouns have their own pronoun.
"der Hund" is masculine-- "er"
"die Blume" is feminine-- "sie"
"das Buch" is neuter-- "es"
ich
du
es
er
wir
ihr
sie
Sie
sie
mich
dich
ihn
sie
es
uns
euch
Sie
sie
mir
dir
ihm
ihr
ihm
uns
euch
Ihnen
ihnen
Possessive adjectives are adjectives that show a noun's possession by a pronoun. For example, the pronoun "I" shows possession with "my". The endings for German possessive adjectives change with the endings of "ein".
English
German
their
my
your (singular informal)
his/ its
her/ its
its
our
your (plural informal)
your (formal)
ihr
mein
dein
sein
ihr
sein
unser
euer
Ihr
Note:
Just as with the German pronouns, the possessive adjectives have three words for "your", singular informal, plural informal, and formal.
Singular informal ("dein") used to address friends, family, children, or students.
Mom says to child: "Are these
your
toys?"
Plural informal ("euer") used to address a group of friends, family, children, or students.
Teacher says to class: "Do
your (all your)
parents have email addresses?"
Formal singular and plural ("Ihr") the same word is used. It is used to address adults.
Adult says to another adult: "
How are
your
children?
"
Note:
The possessive adjectives for "its" depend upon the gender of the noun being possessed.

If the noun is masculine, the "his" adjective is used. If the noun is feminine, the "her" adjective is used. If the noun is neuter, the "his" adjective is also used.
"der Mann" is masculine-- "sein"
"die Frau" is feminine-- "ihr"
"das Auto" is neuter-- "sein"
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
ein
mein
eine
meine
ein
mein
m
eine
e
inen
meinen
ein
em
meinem
ei
ner
meiner
ei
nem
meinem
meinen
eine
meine
ein
mein
meine
+er
+e
+e
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+es
+es
Note:
There are no words for "a" in the plural, because "a" indicates singular.
Place a pronoun in the sentence...
(I) bin sehr müde.
(She) kauft Jeans für (him).
(We) helfen (them) mit der Hausarbeit.
Kind, (you) sind die Beste!
Mama, können (you) (us) ein Eis kaufen?
Kinder, (you all) geht zur Schule jetzt?
Freitag, (he) geht mit (her) ins Kino.
(I) spiele (her) in Tischtennis.
D__ Feiertag kommt jed__ Jahr.
D__ Frau bringt d__ Leuten dies__ Lebkuchen.
Wir gehen zu_ Markt.
Die rot_ Blumen gefallen der schön_ Frau.
Welches alt_ Buch ist da drüben?
Die gelb_ Bananen hat der braun_ Affe.
Die klein_ Maus isst den gelb_ Käse.
To change adjective endings of "der words" add the highlighted endings:
English
German
"children" is an indirect object in the dative case
Der jung_ Mann mit der groß_ Brille kauft die letzt_ Wassermelone.
er
em
"Junge" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Ball" is the masculine object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
er
es
"Feiertag" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Jahr" is the neuter direct object in the accusative
es
er
"Mädchen" is the neuter subject in the nominative
"Sieger" is the masculine predicate nominative in the nominative
en
ie
en
"Frau" is the feminine subject in the nominative
"Leuten" is the plural indirect object in the dative
"Lebkuchen" is the masculine direct object in the accusative
m
"Markt" is the masculine object of the preposition "zu" in the dative
(the contraction
zu + dem = zum
is used)
er
en
"Mathelehrer" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Rechner" is the masculine direct object in the accusative
e
"Maus" is the feminine subject in the nominative
"Käse" is the masculine direct object in the accusative
en
"Blumen" is the plural subject in the nominative
"Frau" is the feminine direct object of the dative verb "gefallen" in the dative
("gefallen" means "to please", so the flowers please the woman)

e
"Mann" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Albert Einstein" is the masculine predicate nominative in the nominative
In German
, however, the sentence can be written both ways:
Santa macht viele Spielsachen.
Viele Spielsachen macht Santa.
The direct object can proceed the subject in German!!
e
"Buch" is the neuter subject in the nominative
e
en
"Mann" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Brille" is the feminine object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
"Wassermelone" is the feminine direct object in the accusative
big
small
groß
klein
To change adjective endings of "ein words" add the highlighted endings:
Give an "ein word" for the following sentences.....
(Consider gender and case of nouns.)
Ein_ Junge spielt mit ein_ Ball.
Dein_ Oma bringt unser_ Mannschaft ein_ Imbiss.
Sie haben kein_ Zeit für ein_ Picknick heute.
Unser_ Mutter ist ein_ Geschichtslehrerin.
Mein_ Vater liest ein_ Krimi gern.
Gehen wir mit mein_ Eltern oder dein_ Schwester?
"Junge" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Ball" is the masculine object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
"Mutter" is the feminine subject in the nominative
"Geschichtslehrerin" is the feminine predicate nominative in the nominative
"Oma" is the feminine subject in the nominative
"Mannschaft" is the feminine indirect object in the dative
"Imbiss" is the masculine direct object in the accusative
"Vater" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Krimi" is the masculine direct object in the accusative
"Eltern" is the plural object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
"Schwester" is the feminine object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
"Zeit" is the feminine direct object in the accusative
"Picknick" is the neuter object of the preposition "für" in the accusative
(
-
)
em
e
e
en
er
e
en
(
-
)
er
en
e
(
-
)
Add an adjective ending...
Mein klug_ Onkel liest ein dick_ Buch pro Woche.
Unsere grau_ Katze schläft bei unserem warm_ Kamin.
Heute ist ein kalt_ Tag!
Ihre klein_ Kinder backen ihrer ganz_ Familie ein lecker_ Biskuitgebäck.
Dein alt_ Opa ist ein gut_ Mann.
Ein rot_ Auto mit einem schwarz_ Streifen geht durch einen lang_ Tunnel.
"Opa" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Mann" is the masculine predicate nominative in the nominative
"Katze" is the feminine subject in the nominative
"Kamin" is the masculine object of the preposition "bei" in the dative
"Onkel" is the masculine subject in the nominative
"Buch" is the neuter direct object in the accusative
"Tag" is the masculine predicate nominative in the nominative
"Auto" is the neuter subject in the nominative
"Streifen" is the masculine object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
"Tunnel" is the masculine object of the preposition "durch" in the accusative
en
"Bananen" is the plural direct object in the accusative
"Affe" is the masculine subject in the nominative
en
e
e
e
er
er
e
en
er
es
en
"Kinder" is the plural subject in the nominative
"Familie" is the feminine indirect object in the dative
"Biskuitgebäck" is the neuter direct object in the accusative
en
en
es
er
en
en
es
Indefinite articles chart...
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
ein
mein
eine
meine
ein
mein
m
eine
e
inen
meinen
ein
em
meinem
ei
ner
meiner
ei
nem
meinem
meinen
eine
meine
ein
mein
meine
+er
+e
+e
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+en
+es
+es
In some sentences, articles are not used with nouns.
I am wearing shoes.
However, adjectives can still be used to describe these nouns without articles.
I am wearing brown shoes.
In German grammar, there are specific adjective endings for nouns without articles:
nominative
accusative
dative
masculine
feminine
neuter
plural
+er
+e
+e
+en
+em
+er
+em
+en
+e
+e
+es
+es
Note:
These adjective endings are the same as the endings for the "der words".
Example-
Di
e
Schuhe sind da drüben.

Blau
e
Schuhe sind da drüben.
Add an adjective ending...
Du willst braun_ Hose?
Ich
, subject in the nominative
sie
, subject in the nominative
ihn
, object of preposition "für" in the accusative
Sie
, formal subject in the nominative
uns
, direct object in the accusative
wir
, subject in the nominative
ihnen
, direct object of the dative verb "helfen" in the dative
du
, informal subject in nominative
er
, subject in nominative
ihr
, object of the preposition "mit" in the dative
ihr
, informal plural subject in nominative
ich
, subject in nominative
sie
, direct object in the accusative
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
der +e
die +e
das +e
die +en
ein +er
eine +e
ein +es
meine +en
ich
du
er
sie
es
wir
ihr
Sie
sie

Articles and adjective endings:
Uses:
Pronouns:
bis
Hausaufgaben,
Schule is not receiving the verb "macht"
bei dem
bei der
beim
remains "bei der"
until
bis später
Er hilft ander_ Leuten.
Alt_ Filme sind langweilig.
Wir hören gern laut_ Musik.
Ich esse kalt_ Eis.
Ärgerlich_ Kinder gefällt mir nicht.
e
"Hose" is the feminine direct object in the accusative
"Filme" is the plural subject in the nominative
e
"Kinder" is the plural subject in the nominative
e
e
"Musik" is the feminine direct object in the accusative
es
"Eis" is the neuter direct object in the accusative
"Leuten" is the direct object of the dative verb "helfen" in the dative
en
Accusative
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
den +e
die +e
das +e
die +en
einen +en
eine +e
ein +es
meine +en
mich
dich
ihn
sie
es
uns
euch
Sie
sie

Articles and adjective endings:
Uses:
Pronouns:
Prepositions:
durch
für
gegen
ohne
um

Dative
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Plural
dem +en
der +en
dem +en
den +en
einem +en
einer +en
einem +en
meinen +en
mir
dir
ihn
ihr
ihn
uns
euch
Ihnen
ihnen

Articles and adjective endings:
Uses:
Pronouns:
Prepositions:
aus
außer
bei
mit
nach
seit
von
zu

indirect objects
objects of dative prepositions
direct objects of dative verbs

Verbs:
helfen
gefallen
wehtun
Leid tun
danken
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