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Transcript of Moscow,
Post Industrial Society
Moscow has been the capital of Russia since 1918 making it 96 years old and is Russia's only megacity. It is considered a world city, and it is the largest European urban agglomeration.
Moscow originated in the 14th century around the Kremlin. Then in 1712 the capital was relocated to Saint Petersburg by Tsar Peter the Great. It wasn't until 1918 when Moscow was once again designated as the capital under Soviet rule.
It has a large functional dominance in the Russian urban system because it is where political, administrative, and economical power are located but it is also a model of civilization for the nation.
Neoclassical buildings characterized urban development during the Stalin era, but in the 1960s large scale housing development became very popular.
The urban region is characterized by its radial concentric spacial pattern.
The outer periphery has urbanized zones which are primarily for military uses and have a lot of forests.
As estimated in 2014 census population of Moscow: 12,111,194.
Migration created high rise housing development in the inner periphery, where most people live today, and where there area lot of industrial zones. This creates sectoral patterns and a development of large scale retain in the periphery.
Since this is such a busy city, transportation is important, the two main roads are Moscow Automobile Ring Road, and garden ring road (surrounded by inner periphery).
The banking and finance sectors have expanded since the 1990s. Incomes are largest in Moscow and continue to increase.
When looking at the development of Moscow, it has gone from a national urban system to a growing international orientation.
2. Horn, C. (2014, September 30). The Potential of Moscow's industrial zones - Russia - Urbanplanet info. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://urbanplanet.info/urbanism/potential-moscows-industrial-zones-russia/
3. Raevskaya, S. (2013, May 3). Reviving Moscow's industrial zones | Russia Beyond The Headlines. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://rbth.com/arts/2013/05/03/reviving_moscows_industrial_zones_25631.html
When the USSR dissolved in 1991, Moscow became the Russian Federation capital.
The Soviet’s capital economy begins to shift into capitalism and the service industry, with specialized and free markets in congruence with the western civilizations. Moscow’s industry has transitioned from more raw materials and metal working, textiles, and heavy engineering into a skilled work force that specializes in many new private industries such as; banking, telecommunications, construction, timber-processing, chemicals, food processing, and tourism.
Moscow remains the largest industrial sector in Russia even after the decline of the Soviet’s manufacturing economy. One of the main reasons Moscow is the richest city in Russia is because it inherited immensely valuable real estate from the Soviet government.
When the Soviet rule ended, Moscow promptly renovated their historical buildings, mainly churches, to keep the city’s culture and historical significance alive.
-Museums and theatres have been remodeled, adding cultural capital.
Transportation improvements such as; the metro, bigger roads, more roads, and more cars contribute to the spread of the population.
For example from 1995-1997 (MKAD) ring road was increased to 10 lanes from a measly 4 lanes.
Moscow’s population has increased to about 12.1 million people growing at a 10.9% even though Russia’s population has been decreasing from 2002 to 2010.
The city’s population has increased due to new policies and a better economy. A large number of migrants along with higher birth rates are significant factors.
The housing shortage along with the explosion of the single family housing market has created a demand to expand into the suburbs with the help of the new transportation methods, instead of increased population growth in the city itself. However, the majority of the people live in monolithic apartment blocks.
This figure shows Moscow’s population density and how it is spreading outwards to urban areas.
This figure shows the ten lane MKAD traffic congestion, as it is one of the busiest roads in the world.
Since 1991 the Moscow government has become more involved in areas of housing, education, and health. More people are moving here because there are more job opportunities, better living conditions, better infrastructure, and higher average salaries.
Capitalism has created a fractured city, as citizens live very different lives compared to one another.
Supermarkets, gyms, restaurants, and other consumer services fill the streets.
Industrial zones make up about 20% of the city, which are going unused. However, Moscow officials are making plans to utilize these areas by creating parks and even an art district improving the city's landscape.
Moscow’s economy is on the up. In 2007, Moscow ranked top on the List of most expensive cities for second year in a row.
This figure shows the Moscow Art Theater
One fifth of Russia's population was living in urban places at the beginning of the 20th century
Throughout the Soviet period 74% of Russia's population lived in urban places.
Two important urban demographic changes that occurred in Russia during the Soviet period were:
-Rapid urbanization due to industrialization
-The growth of cities in harsh inhospitable regions such as Siberia, the far east and the north
Moscow like every modern city is home to many shops, restaurants, museums, theaters, and also residential areas with historic sites that are well preserved. The apartment buildings in Moscow represent the Soviet-style architecture; such as the Garden Ring space.
This figure shows historic hotel Moskva in Moscow. It represents Soviet architecture
4. Moscow: A Transition from Rural to Urban Industrial and Post-Industrial Society. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2015, from https://sites.google.com/site/citiesoftheworldmoscowgroup5/
5. Cities of Russia. (2008). In S. Brunn (Ed.), Cities of the World (Fourth ed., pp. 255-296). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Human security issues such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic and human trafficking are serious problems for the community.
Approximately one in every hundred Russians is infected with HIV/AIDS. Infections are generally spread through intravenous drug use or needle sharing and sexual intercourse.
Moscow is one of the many destinations for women trafficked for sex work. 88.5 percent of prostitutes are not originally from Moscow.
An understaffed police force and the lack of resources to combat powerful trafficking organizations has prevented the Russian government from eliminating this problem.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, a lot of the Soviet Union disaster sites where in other countries which shed the responsibility on the new territories.
Air pollution is very high in Moscow, 87% of the air pollution is from vehicular pollution the other 13% is industrial pollution and improper disposal of low-level radioactive waste.
Moscow and St. Petersburg are the Ural manufacturing centers
In Moscow 30% if the ground water for use is highly polluted
In July 1995 Moscow city health officials reported an outbreak of cholera- causing bacteria in Moscow River
Moscow landfills are predicted to be completely full within the next 2-4 years most of the Russian community does not recycle
Russians throw out 15 to 20 more plastic then previous years
Moscow produces about 22 million tons of waste per year
6. Mcgrane, S. (2014, September 18). As Moscow's Landfills Near Limits, Recyclers Do Whatever It Takes. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/19/world/europe/as-moscow-landfills-near-limits-recyclers-do-whatever-it-takes.html?_r=0
7. Russia - Environmental Problems. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://countrystudies.us/russia/25.htm
This figure shows the landfill in Moscow
At the time of the founding of Russia, 1147, it was a small rural area with just a few houses on the land near the Moskva River.
The transition from rural to urban migration begin with the decline of the peasant family in the late 1920's
Most of the people during the rural era of Moscow were illiterate
During the change of to an urban society, educational levels grew in both men and women
the rural Tambov region is the heart of Moscow, which is built on its agriculture industry
Vast majority of people lived in rural communities and engaged in relatively primitive agriculture
Most of the rural population, four-fifths, handled the rural industry which was agriculture
Small-scale peasant farming and the growth of the rural population increased the amount of land used for agricultural development
8. Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2015, from http://countrystudies.us/russia/6.htm
This image shows the rural village living style in Moscow Russia