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Principles of Quantity Food Production and Preliminary Food Preparation
Transcript of Principles of Quantity Food Production and Preliminary Food Preparation
Principles of Quantity Food Production and Preliminary Food Preparation
Conventional Food Service System
The conventional food service system is most common, although that is changing due to the current operating environment. In conventional food service systems, ingredients are assembled and food is produced onsite, held either heated or chilled, and served to customers.
Conventional foodservice systems are used extensively in schools, restaurants, colleges and universities, and cafeterias.
Classification of Food Service Systems
The commissary food service system (also known as central kitchen, central food production, or food factory) centralizes food production, and food is transported to satellites (receiving kitchens) where it is served to customers.
This food service system takes advantage of
economies of scale, so it is most effective when mass food production is required.
Centralized (Commissary) Food service System
The ready-prepared food service system has been in use for many years. In ready prepared food service systems, food is produced onsite, held chilled or frozen, reheated, and served to customers on site. Food production can be scheduled at any time, since food is prepared and stored frozen or chilled for later service.
Ready-Prepared Food service System
The assembly-serve food service system traditionally has been the least common, although that is changing due to the current operating environment. Also, there are many choices in foods that can be purchased that only require heating and serving.The purchased food is stored either frozen or chilled for later use. It is then portioned, reheated, and served to customers.
Assembly-Serve Food service System
1. To understand the application of basic principles to bulk production of the food.
2. To gain knowledge regarding selection and purchase of food.
3. To develop skills in menu planning for quantity preparation.
4. To understand the different styles of food service in volume feeding.
5. To gain knowledge of food service layout.
6. To gain knowledge to develop skills in handling equipment and maintenance.
Objectives of Quantity Food Production
Raw materials obtained from approved/licensed and reputable suppliers
Establish products’ safety and quality specifications with suppliers (including delivery temperature of perishable foods)
Temperature Guidelines throughout the Food Flow Chart
Use first-in-first-out (FIFO)rotation (Use date codes or
marks to show the time sequence of food storage)
Temperature of raw materials on arrival: 4°C or
below (chilled foods) entirely frozen (frozen foods)
Store chilled / frozen foodsat 4°C/–18°C or below
immediately after receiving(e.g. within ten minutes)
Storage temperature at 4°C or below
Temperature of freezer at –18°C or below
Frozen foods to be thawed under:
refrigeration at 8°C or below
cool running water in waterproof package
Cool to 4°C or below in six hours (Cool from 63°C
to 20°C in two hours and then to 4°C or below in the
next four hours)
Maximum time for holding
thawed foods and cold
perishable foods at above
4°C is four hours
Core food temperature
reaches 75°C or above
Heat food to a core temperature 75°C or above as quickly as
Keep food at 63°C or above
Keep food at 63°C or above
Keep cold foods (e.g. raw oysters, sashimi and salad)
at 4°C or below
Keep hot foods at 63°C or
above and cold foods at
4°C or below
Proper Hand Washing Technique
In a refrigerator
Thaw food in a refrigerator at 41 degrees F or
below. This is one of the safest to thaw foods.
However, there are a few reminders:
Be sure to use a drip pan under the food being
thawed so that the drippings do not contaminate
other foods.Thaw raw foods below ready to eat
food so that drippings do not contaminate food.
Plan ahead. This method can take longer for frozen
foods; turkey may take 24 hours or more.
Proper Thawing Methods
To thaw foods that are to be cooked immediately. Microwave following the
thawing process. Microwave thawing actually begins the cooking process and
should be followed by cooking the food item. Although thawing foods by a
microwave is efficient, it is not recommended for large food items.
Using a microwave
Frozen foods can also be thawed as part of the cooking process. Foods which work well with this method are frozen vegetables and ground meats.
Allow more time than normal to cook and stir the food more often. Check the final internal food temperature with a thermometer to determine that potentially harmful bacteria have been killed.
As part of the Cooking Process
Another way to thaw frozen foods is under running water with water pressure sufficient to flush away loose particles.
It is important to limit this method to no more than two hours
at a recommended water temperature of 70 degrees F or below, A clean and sanitized food sink separate from hand wash sinks is needed.
Avoid cross contamination from the water dripping off of the food or splashing onto other foods and preparation surfaces and utensils.
Under Running Water
Heat transfer, also known as heat flow, heat exchange, or transfer of thermal energy is the movement of heat from one place to another. When an object is at a different temperature from its surroundings, heat transfer occurs so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature.
Production planning means to fix the production goals and to estimate the resources which are required to achieve these goals.
It prepares a detailed plan for achieving the production goals economically, efficiently and in time.
It forecasts each step in the production process. It forecasts the problems, which may arise in the production process. It tries to remove these problems. It also tries to remove the causes of wastage.
1. All cooked foods should be reheated to 165° F, refrigerated, or frozen within 2 hours after cooking.
Remember that the "safe" period starts after the food is cooked. It includes the time that the food sits before being served and the time it sits on the table while the meal is being eaten. This period lasts until the food is actually in the refrigerator or freezer.
Proper Utilization of Leftover Foods
Use clean utensils to handle the food, and store it in clean containers. Do not put food back into the same container it was in before it was cooked, unless you have carefully cleaned the container with soap and water. Do not place food on a counter or cutting board before refrigerating or freezing, unless you have carefully cleaned the surface beforehand.
Remember to wash your hands with soap and water before
handling any cooked food, especially food you store to eat later.
You should place foods to be refrigerated or frozen in small, shallow containers, 3 inches tall or less, and cover them completely.
Don't stack these containers right next to other containers, but leave some air space around them.
Remember to remove the stuffing from cooked poultry and refrigerate or freeze it separately.
If you date leftovers before refrigerating them, this can help you ensure they don't remain in your refrigerator too long.
Warming Leftover Foods When leftover foods are reheated, make sure you heat them completely.
Never taste leftovers that are of questionable age or safety.
As a general rule, never keep leftovers for more than 4 days.
You can also use leftover food to create new meals.
When leftovers have been in the refrigerator too long or if they
look or smell unusual, throw them out! Anytime you are in doubt
about the freshness or safety of any food, dispose of it.
Full Silver Service is where the steward brings the meal to the guest who is seated at the table either controlled for simultaneous service at a formal or informal function. The food is to be arranged on silver flats or entrée and vegetable dishes, with the appropriate sauces and accompaniments in silver sauceboats.
Different Styles of Food Service
For Butler/French Service the plates are placed at each cover and then the food items are presented to each customer in turn, in order that they may help themselves.
Family Service is where the main dish may be either plated or silver served by the steward. Potato dishes, vegetables, auces and other accompaniments are placed on the table for the diners to help themselves. The starter and sweet are served plated.
Plated Service is where a set menu is normally offered and there is a rapid turnover of customers, and quick service is necessary. The steward places the plated meal in front of the guest and then
ensures the necessary accompaniments are on the table.
Self Service. Self-service is where the customer collects their meal from the servery.
Trolley Service is a style of service whereby the steward serves a meal to a customer from a trolley or side table. This service demands skill and dexterity on the part of the steward who must be able to carry out complicated procedures such as filleting, carving, flambé work and preparing and cooking speciality dishes at the table.
This is self-service of all dishes; coffee and wine from one or more presentation tables. The main course(s) may be either hot or cold, a arvery or a combination of both. Starters and sweets shall normally be cold. Stewards and chefs should assist self-service at the presentation tables and tewards should clear away used plates, glasses and cutlery from tables
throughout the meal.