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Transcript of Carbohydrates
1. simple sugars -- remember "mono" means one and "sacccharide" means sugar.
How do these
combine into chains?
(look at the words and try to figure out what is happening in this reaction)
1. Long chains of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis.
2. Sugars are made from
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
in multiples of CH2O formula.
(ose indicates sugar)
3. Have hydroxyl groups (--OH) and carbonyl groups (C=O).
4. Made from C, H, O but can be arranged in different ways to give different properties.
glucose Vs. fructose
Functions of Monosaccharides:
1. Main fuel for cellular work.
2. Raw materials for making other
3. If they are not used, they will be
combined into chains of sugars for
storage and structural components.
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
Glucose gives up an OH and the other glucose gives up an H to form water. The 2 glucose molecules are now joined by an oxygen molecule.
Forms of polysaccharides are:
1. Starch: storage in plants
2. Glycogen: storage in animals; stored in the liver and muscle cells
3. Cellulose: form the fibers in cell walls; allow plants to stand
4. Chitin: used in exoskeleton of insects
1. What process links carbohydrates?
2. What must be added during hydrolysis?
1. What elements make up carbohydrates?
2. What are the functions of carbohydrates?
3. Try to draw a carbohydrate in
1. Recognize the chemical structures and functional groups of carbohydrates.
2. Model dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.
3. Understand the function of carbohydrates and give examples of them in biological systems.
Textbook pages 33-39.