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The Dutch Empire
Transcript of The Dutch Empire
Development and Interaction of Cultures
How was state-building affected?
The Dutch Empire is the name given to the lands controlled by the Netherlands from the 1600s to the 1900s. The area started out as a loose alliance of states known as the Seventeen Provinces under the rule of Charles V the Holy Roman Empire in 1543. After the 80 Years War the people declared independence from Spain in 1581 in the Act of Abjuration. This created a small Protestant movement in the north. It was the creation of the Dutch East India company that allowed these northern people to expand their territory and holdings and gain the title of empire. They had colonies in Brazil, Taiwan, and the Virgin Islands as well as the important Cape Colony.
Development of Economic Systems
The most important factor in the economic system of the Dutch empire at this time was the Dutch East India trading company. This was a charter company started in 1602 to carry out trade and colonizing activities in Asia. Because they were private companies they received a monopoly on trade in a given area in exchange for paying their respective countries. Initially the goal was to secure goods and trade routes in the area, but over time the focus shifted to conquering and maintaining territory. Throughout the early 1600's the trading company established cities in Batavia and conquered most of the islands of Sri Lanka. By 1652 they had established Cape Town, a crucial halfway point in the Europe to Asia trade routes. For over a century the company maintained a monopoly on the shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace. By the end of the time period in 1750 the Dutch East India trading company employed 25,000 people and conducting business in 10 Asian countries.
Who was in Power Previously?
How was the environment affected by the empire's arrival?
Development and Transformation of Social Structure
Indonesia, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Malacca, & Salvador (only held for a year) were first ruled by
In places like Formosa (Taiwan), Deshima (Japan), several places in Iran, & the Cape of Good Hope (where the
had ruled), the Dutch only held trading posts and bases and had little political power.
Suriname was under
rule before the Dutch.
The Dutch West Indies (St. Maarten) were ruled by
Western Australia was run by its
Guyana, the Virgin Islands, and Tobago were each run by
before the Dutch.
New Netherland (on the Hudson River) was "purchased" from the
for the price of 60 guilders (Dutch currency).
In Indonesia, the Dutch were at the top of the social hierarchy. Chinese middlemen formed the middle class and the indigenous people were the lowest class, with the exception of sultans and rajas, which were the indigenous nobility selected to locally rule. Slaves were used as social symbols for the elite.
In New Netherlands, the Dutch made a series of campaigns against the Native Americans, but they created heavy tension between the two groups.
In Suriname, the population was split into free people and slaves. At the top of the social hierarchy were the senior officials, merchants, and planters. Slave-masters made up the middle class. Most slaves were African, but the slaves of mixed races got the most desirable jobs.
The Dutch brought over diseases (such as smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, influenza, and chicken pox) to their colonies in the Pacific and the Americas, decreasing the indigenous populations.
In the New Netherlands, the Dutch constructed villages, making roads and houses made of wood and stone.
Many people were forced to migrate from Africa to Suriname and forced into slavery. People from Asia migrated to Suriname to as indentured servants, and eventually made up a majority of Suriname's population.
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The Dutch Reformed Church and Catholic Church each sent missionaries and over time converted Indonesians to Christianity.
Links with Muslim Indonesians brought the study of Islam to the Dutch world & universities.
Established a fur trade with the Iroquois, in turn helping the Iroquois defeat the Huron, an opposing Native American tribe.
Introduced Western medicines, mathematics, and sciences.
The Dutch helped in developing the Afrikaner ethnic group (African & Dutch people) and helped influence the Afrikaans language.
Dutch art representing their imperialist control over the East Indies.
Logo of the Dutch East India Company.
Dutch sailors on a trade mission.
The Maas at Dordrecht, c. 1650, Dordecht