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Transcript of NATURAL DISASTERS
Natural Hazards vs Natural Disasters
According to the International Red Cross, in 2013
-there were 529 disasters
-337 natural, 192 related to human conflict or technology
-disasters affected 96.5 million people,
-21610 were killed
-56% of all disasters were related to weather & climate
How do Natural Disasters affect Canada?
The diversity of Canada's physical landscape and climate means that Canada experiences a variety natural disasters, including
ICE STORMS TORNADOES
FOREST FIRES EARTHQUAKES
Events like this are frightening an often difficult to understand because we have little control over where and when they occur.
Damages from the Calgary flood in 2013 were estimated to cost more than $1.7 Billion. 4 people died, 100 000 people were evacuated form their homes and at least 14 500 homes were damaged
an EF5 tornado touched down in Elie, Manitiba in 2007. It caused $39 Million in damage. I affectd homes, farms and livestick
An ice storm in the GTA in 2013 left 1 million people without power for days. It shut down all travel, tore through trees, power lines, leaving families without heat. There were 27 deaths and $200 Million in damages.
are naturally occuring events.(Volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, or severe storms)
are when these hazards take lives or destroy homes and vital infrastructure
Most natural disasters have an element of HUMAN INVOLVEMENT. Many times people live directly in harms way.
The severity of impacts from Natural hazard or disasters depends on two things:
of the extreme event
-the presence of
CAUSES and TYPES of Natural Disasters
caused by EARTH PROCESSES, especially those involving plate techtonics
earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides
caused by WEATHER & CLIMATE
EXAMPLES: hurricanes, typhoons, tropical storms, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, blizzards, lightning, hail, ice storms
caused by WATER PROCESSES
EXAMPLES: flooding, erosion and sedimentation, drought
Natural Hazard Classifications
develop with little warning and strike quickly
can often take many years to develop
-affect a huge number of people or have a worldwide effect.
EX: large asteroid or massive volcanic eruption
EFFECTS of Natural Disasters on Canadians
-occur as a result of the process itself, such as the collapse of buildings during a landslide or earthquake
-occur only because a primary effect has caused them.
-examples include the disruption of electricity and water services as a result of a hurricane or earthquake, and fires resulting from an earthquake
-are long term effects set off by the primary event
-impacts could include crop failure as a result of a volcanic eruption, or an epidemic of water borne disease as a result of ruptured sewer lines during an earthquake
Vulnerability to Hazards & Dis asters
Vulnerability refers to the way that a hazard or disaster will affect human life and property.
Vulnerability depends on:
-how close people are to hazards
-how many people are in the area
-how well scientists have sudied the hazard
public education and awareness of the disaster
-presence of an early warning system & communication
-how prepared authorities are to respond, and availability of emergency services
-the use o hazard resistant construction and building codes
-building homes on flood plains, mountain slopes, or coastlines
-overgrazing or deforestation can lead to erosion, flooding & landlsides
-construction of homes and roads can destabillize slopes leading to landslides
SOCIAL & CULTURAL
-depend on the type, size, & intensity of the event
-measured in costs of clean up and rebuilding as well as disruptions to the local economy
-loss of manufacturing, employment & sales
-includes losses to agriculture, drainage & water systems
-tourist $ lost by avoiding the danger
-governments face criticism and blame for many aspects of a disaster
-often not fully prepared
-public lose confidence in government ability to meet their needs
Government responsibility before, during and after a Disaster:
-train disaster response
-info to public
-search & rescue
-ID areas of greatest need
-emergency personnel & equipment
-provide public's basic needs
-evaluate effectiveness of plans
-develop recovery plan
-seek assistance for recovery costs
Natural Disasters cause major disruptions to the social life of a community
-schools & places of worship damaged, or become emergency shelters
-community activities suspended
-neighborhoods & families can be torn apart, relocation & rebuilding (Displacement)
Devastating impacts on the Environment
-wildlife habitats destroyed
-air pollution from burning materials
-contamination of drinking water
-release of sewage & toxic chemicals
All create health concerns for humans and wildlife.
Natural hazards can rarely be stopped. However, individuals, communities and governments can do things to reduce the loss of life and property.
the activities and plans in place to prepare for & respond to diasasters
Assessing Hazards & Risks
: Assessing from a scientific POV, and all effects a hazardous event has on people & property
Planning & Preparedness
: Public Safety Canada(Federal branch) created an Emergency Management framework to help all levels of government in the event of disaster
3. Monitoring, prediction & Early Warning
: warnings are issued when there is a high probability of a hazardous event occuring. Effectiveness depends on timing, accuracy & communication
: any ttempt to keep hazards from turning into disasters. Measures can be
STRUCTURAL: physical construction to minimize hazards
NON-STRUCTURAL: early warning systems, evacuation planning & emergency response
5 Response & Recovery
: help reduce the loss of life and property, make sure response is quick & efficient, recovery efforts
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is one of the greatest threats facing our planet. Scientists agree that much of the warming of the planet over the last 200 years is a direct result of human activities. they also agree that the speed at which climate change is occuring is making it increasingly difficult for humans and earth to adapt.
Causes of Climate Change
: outgoing heat in the atmosphere re-radiates back to earth
:have both natural & human created sources.
Created by burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas).
CO2 builds up and increases Greenhouse Effect.
Other gases include Methane, Nitrous Oxide
Green House Gas Emissions
Canada has about 0.5% of the global population, but contributes 1.57% of the worlds total global greenhouse emissions.
This makes Canada one of the highest PER CAPITA emitters.
the large size of our country
-the low population
-the high energy demands due to climate
-our resource based economy
-the volume of goods we export
IMPACT ON CANADA
Species & Spaces
-global warming dramatically impacts wildlife habitats around the world. Canada is expected to be one of the hardest hit countries because of its Northern location
-vulnerable northern regions
-projected shifts in climate change could cause habitat losses exceeding 45% of Canada's land area
-plants & animals will have to permenently migrate to find suitable habitat
-species in more than 30% of Canada's habitats will need to migrate over 1km per year(considered unusually high)
-loss of tundra reduces the availability of vital breeding habitat
-fire frequency in boreal forests have increased over the last 20 yrs. Total size of burns increased from 1million hectares to 3 millon hectares in the last decade alone
Scientists agree that climate change will affect all areas of Canada to some extent, but the impact will vary from region to region and depend on the rate of warming
No one country can achieve the necessary emissions reductions alone. Countries must co-operate over many years to deal with causes, effects and solutions to global climate change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects that by 2080, millions of people will be displaced due to rising sea levels, extreme weather events, storm surges and rising seas
-1992-United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed by 194 countries + European Union
-members meet yearly to discuss the treaty's goals
-2005-Kyoto Protocol-38 countries agreed to reduce GHG emissions to levels 5.2% below those of 1990 by 2012
-2011 Canada withdrew from Kyoto, instead adapting a GHG redution target of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020
-Kyoto expired December 2013
-there is no current international agreement on climate change in place
Is Canada Ready?
Read the article "Is Canada ready for the next Natural Disaster". then complete the worksheets below.
Link and worksheets are on the Google Classroom