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Humanistic / Person-Centered Approaches
Transcript of Humanistic / Person-Centered Approaches
Shannon Quirey, Veronica Sinclair, Tiffany Treimanis Humanistic / Person-Centered Approaches What is the Humanistic
Perspective? Conditions of Therapy Key Terms in Humanistic Therapy Therapeutic Process Techniques Critiques (Day, 2008)
(Farber, 2010) What is Humanism? -Concerned with human values, capacities, and worth; making the most of client potentialities
-Encourages authenticity; Being your "true self "
-Humans are innately good with an actualizing tendency that drives growth
-Humanistic psychotherapy focuses on creating the conditions of psychotherapy that cultivate this actualizing tendency (Schneider, Bugental, & Pierson, 2001) History Birthplace of humanism - 5th century BCE Greece - Philosophers such as Plato and Socrates advocated ideas that were more "human" and less "god-centered"
Socrates famously said to "know thyself"
Humanists believed in personal responsibility, choice, love, and fear
Movement away from supernatural towards reason and reflection
Specifically in psychology, humanism was formed as a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis (turn of the 20th century)
Key founders- Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May (Watson, Goldman & Greenberg, 2011) Carl Rogers Founder of person-centered approach in the U.S.
Initially studied agriculture and religion, then transferred to clinical psychology and was trained in psychoanalytic theory.
Influenced by Otto Rank, a psychoanalyst who emphasized the here and now, the healing power of the therapeutic relationship, and constructive forces within the individual.
Pioneer of audiotaping therapy sessions- He began to intensively study and analyze the therapy process - He was interested in the process of change within clients who achieved successful outcomes
Lead to his publication of Client-Centered Therapy in 1951 Carl Rogers, simplypsychology.org Rogers’s basic views:
human motivation is moving towards wholeness, and self actualizing tendencies
Renamed "Client-centered" approach to "Person-centered" approach
Provided central clinical framework for humanistic therapies Necessary Vs. Sufficient Necessary: Constructive change cannot happen unless these conditions are present Sufficient: No other theoretical backing or technical skill need to be applied to a case The condition needs to exist and continue over a period of time Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapy 1. Two persons are in a psychological contract
2. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client.
5. The therapist experiences empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this experience to the client.
6. The communication to the client of the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved Roger's Three
Facilitative Conditions Also called The Core Conditions, or The Conditions (#3, 4, and 5) Congruence: (also called genuineness or authenticity): the counselor is presented as a person (not as a blank slate) and the counselor’s feelings, thoughts, and actions are not at odds, though not all thought and feelings are expressed. Unconditional Positive Regard: (also called non-possessive warmth): a warm acceptance of each aspect of the client’s experience as being a part of that client. No conditions of acceptance. Empathy: (understanding): involves the psychologist’s goal of seeing the world through the client’s position, or entering from his or her phenomenological world, this allows the client to feel freedom to explore his or her experiences. This is achieved through ardent, responsive attention to the client’s thoughts and feelings. How Rogers's 3 Differs from Other
Positive Relationships Some aspects overlap with friendships
However in therapy:
Clear focus is on the client
Rogers's 3 last longer in the therapeutic relationship than in other relationships that thrive on reciprocality
Therapeutic relationship is unconditional
Therapeutic relationship focuses on client's best interests Abraham Maslow Third Force
Hierarchy of Human Need
Basic need driving much of human behavior that is the full utilization of personal capacities, talents, and potential; self acceptance
Moment of awe and awareness (an A-ha moment) Client Congruence and Incongruence Incongruence: Inauthenticity; discrepency between the actual experience and the self picture of the individual to represent the experience.
Long-standing, cross-situational incongrence, conscious or not is considered damaging to mental health by humanistic psychologists.
Goal of therapy is to reduce incongruence. Locus of Evaluation Locus of Evaluation: The place you value in terms of judging your actions and motivations, successes and failures
External: Dominated by public opinion, family appraisal, and customs
Internal: Not necessarily rejecting others' opinions or the influence of your culture; considering the values and beliefs of others respectfully without making them yours automatically The Fully Functioning Person Goal of Humanistic Psychology
This person is open to experiences, has trust in one's own experiences, has an internal locus of control, a willingness to process, is on a path to self-actualization, has a sense of meaning or purpose in life, and accepts and trusts others Real Self and Ideal Self Real Self: What or who we are
Ideal Self: What we aspire to be
Goal is for them to be similar (Self Acceptance)
Q-sort Technique (Stephenson, 1953): Method used to help assess the effects of psychotherapy by having the individual rate and distinguish the real and ideal self before and after therapy to determine if change occurs
Rogers and colleagues found that in client-centered therapy a client’s real self became closer to their ideal self. Downplay of Diagnosis and Assessment Humanistic Psychologists do not consider diagnosis and assessment essential to counseling and do not use the DSM
Positive Psychology Movement: Investigates positive emotions like happiness, human positive strengths and virtues, and affirmative community-building.
Handbook of Positive Psychology
by Snyder & Lopez 2005
Described as "un-DSM“ because of focus on not diagnosing
Focuses on self-actualization from humanism Actualizing Tendency The foundation of the person-centered approach during the therapeutic process is the concept of actualizing tendency, which is the underlying belief that an individual is oriented toward a tendency to grow to realize their full potential.
Through this actualizing tendency, the therapist makes certain assumptions during the therapeutic process including the idea that:
- The client and therapist are equals
- The therapist places trust in the client
- The therapist believes that the client is the authority on his or herself. “The Organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism."
- Carl Rogers, 1951 Roger’s Therapeutic
Process Model The therapist reassures the client that they are in control of the pace, the direction of their therapy, and working toward their (rather than the therapist’s) motivation.
1. Experiencing of the Potential Self
2. Experiencing of an Affectional Relationship
3. The Liking of One’s Self
4. Discovering that the Core of Personality is Positive
5. The Being of One’s Experience ROGERS, 1942 Necessary Elements During Therapy (1) Counselor operates with the idea that the client is responsible for himself.
(2) Counselor operates on the principle that the client has a strong drive to become mature, socially adjusted, independent, productive, and relies on this force, not on his own powers, for therapeutic change.
(3) If the counselor creates a warm and permissive atmosphere in which the individual is free to bring out any attitudes and feelings which he may have.
(4) If the limits which are set are simple limits set on behavior, and not limits set on attitudes.
(5) If the therapist uses only those procedures and techniques in the interview which convey his deep understanding of the emotionalized attitudes expressed and his acceptance of them.
(6) If the counselor refrains from questioning, probing, blame, interpretation, advice, suggestion, persuasion, reassurance. ROGERS, 1942 in Humanistic Therapy Non-Directive Techniques Avoidance of questions, comments, or interpretations
Therapist is accepting of what the client says and reflects back the client’s feelings as accurately as possible
Client chooses the topics to be discussed Day, 2008
Lee, 2011 Self-Disclosure Controversial
Therapist discusses his or her own vulnerabilities and difficulties
Might help the client to know their therapist experienced similar feelings
Helps illustrate the therapist’s genuineness and positive regard for clients
Helps promote the client’s openness, intimacy, and trust
Disclose appropriate content
Primary focus should still remain on the client
Research has shown positive effects from self-disclosure Cooper, 2008
Knox & Hill, 2003 Play Therapy Recommended to treat multiple problems ranging from moderate to severe
Allow child to play and observe and analyze their experiences
Examine the symbolism of the child’s play choices and consider its meaning
Examples of materials: expressive media like drama, sand play art, puppets, music, clay
Core conditions (congruence, acceptance, and empathy)
The quality of the relationship between the therapist and client is a strong predictor of its success
In one research study, 68% of 1,851 children had improved after play therapy Robinson, 2011 Using Humanistic Therapy State of unfeeling
State of deadness, of nothingness, a state in which the person is asleep, behaving automatically
State in which a person is unable to experience anything. (Richards, et. al. 1978) Person-Centered Therapy
--Relationship Issues (Bohart, 2003) Using Humanistic Therapy Real-Life Applications
Diversity Life-Changing Events
PTSD after war
Career or Job loss
Death in Family Carl Rogers Humanistic Therapy Video of Humanism Roger's Concept of True Self The "true-self" is unchanging. It can be a subject of exploration and discovery, but not a change agent in itself.
The person discovers his or her "true self", but does not create it.
The "true self" is a material entity that is self-contained. It is unable to be receptive with the world. Gellar, 1982 Gellar's Beliefs Self-examination is indistinguishable from social experiences. It shapes and is shaped by society.
Self-reflection is not easy. It is likely that clients will deceive themselves, be biased, and make errors.
Becoming self-actualized is an on-going process. Gellar, 1987 Critiques of Pure Client-Centered Therapy Rogers did not realize the power of social and cultural factors on an individual's behaviors and attitudes. He assumes that the environment known at birth does not change.
Self-Actualization is only possible if the therapist is genuinely interested in and committed to the client.
Non-direction, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness provide a wonderful environment, but is ineffective for counseling purposes. The counselor must confront the client at times to promote change. Kensit, 2000 Additional Critiques...
Nondirective techniques are criticized for using prescribed responses that are disingenuous.
Rogers does not take biological influences into account.
Difficult to prove effectiveness empirically.
May not be suitable for all clients. Day, 2008 Scenarios I feel anxious all the time. I feel like a black cloud is looming over me at work and at home. Most days I don’t want to get out of bed because I feel so anxious about getting through the day. I hate my father. He obviously doesn’t love me. He never calls or checks in on me. I feel abandoned by him. I’m his only child. You would think he would be interested in my life, but he’s not. Additional Videos References Cooper, M. (2008). Interpersonal perceptions and metaperceptions: Psychotherapeutic practice in the interexperiential realm. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(1), 85-99. doi:10.1177/0022167808323152
Day, S. X. (2008). Theory and design in counseling and psychotherapy, 2nd Ed. Boston: Lahaska
Gellar, L. (1982). The failure of self-actualization theory: A critique of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(2), 56-73.
Farber, E.W. (2010).Humanistic–existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. doi: 10.1037/a0018847.
Kensit, D. A. (2000). Rogerian theory: A critique of the effectiveness of pure client-centered therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 13(4), 345-351.
Knox, S., & Hill, C. E. (2003). Therapist self-disclosure: Research-based suggestions for practitioners. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 529-539. doi:10.1002/jclp.10157
Lee, R. M. (2011). “The most important technique…”: Carl Rogers, Hawthorne, and the rise and fall of nondirective interviewing in sociology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 47(2), 123-146. doi:10.1002/jhbs.2049
Moss, D. (1999). Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical sourcebook. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Robinson, S. (2011). What play therapists do within the therapeutic relationship of humanistic/non-directive play therapy. Pastoral Care in Education: An International Journal of Personal, Social and Emotional Development, 29(3), 207-220. doi:10.1080/02643944.2011.599858
Rogers, C. R. Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1942
Rogers, C. R. Significant Aspects of Client-Centered Therapy. American Psychologist, Vol 1(10), Oct 1946, 415-422
Schneider, K.J., Bugental, J.F.T., & Pierson, J.F. (2001). Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Sutton, G. W. (2007). Review of 'Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths'. Journal Of Psychology And Christianity, 26(3), 273-274.
Watson, J.C., Goldman, R.N., & Greenberg, L.S. (2011). Humanistic and experiential theories of psychotherapy. History of Psychotherapy: Continuity, and change. doi: 10.1037/12353-005
Waugh, R. F. (2001). Measuring ideal and real self-concept on the same scale, based on a multifaceted, hierarchical model of self-concept. Educational And Psychological Measurement, 61(1), 85-101. doi:10.1177/00131640121971086
Zalenski, R. J., & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: A Framework for Achieving Human Potential in Hospice. Journal Of Palliative Medicine, 9(5), 1120-1127. doi:10.1089/jpm.2006.9.1120 Carl Rogers Day, 2008 Day, 2008
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Moss, 1999 October 1st, 2012