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Genocide in Rwanda

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Emily EtsHokin

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Genocide in Rwanda

Overview
In April of 1994, conflict broke out between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups of Rwanda
Conflict Analysis
Actors
Root Causes
Issue, Scope, and Stage
Power, Resources,
and Relationships
History of the
Relationship
Genocide in Rwanda
Stakeholder Analysis
Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation
Critiques and Recommendations
Concluding Thoughts
Resources
Pre-Genocide Conflict Timeline
Aftermath
Conflict Resolution
Resolution Critiques
Reconciliation Recommendations
In just 100 days, an estimate of 750,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were systematically killed by their Hutu army, paramilitary groups and neighbors
Stakeholders

Societal
Psychological:
Dehumanization
Important aspect of development and perpetuation of violence in conflict, exemplified in Rwanda
Hutu propaganda employed dehumanizing vocabulary such as "cockroach" and "exterminate" to encourage murder of Tutsis
Causes people to disconnect further from out-group and psychologically justifies actions
Out-group
empathy
development is crucial in situations with dehumanization
Interaction deprograms psychological constructs of dehumanization and infrahumanization
The Hutu majority struck out against the Tutsi minority in response to growing tension and conflict due to intense social and political conditions
Hundreds of thousands of lives lost
2,000,000 Rwandan refugees
UN Security Council established International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Tens of thousands of Hutu prisoners stand trial for their crimes
Questions?
Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence.

Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence. Peace And Conflict: Journal Of Peace Psychology, 5(4), 303-336. doi:10.1207/s15327949pac0504_2
Staub, E. (2006). "Reconciliation after genocide, mass killing, or intractable conflict: Understanding the roots of violence, psychological recovery, and steps toward a general theory". Political psychology (0162-895X), 27 (6), p. 867.
Staub, E. (2006). "Reconciliation after genocide, mass killing, or intractable conflict: Understanding the roots of violence, psychological recovery, and steps toward a general theory"
Government initiated a policy of unity and reconciliation, where people are expected to identify as Rwandan instead of Hutu or Tutsi
Staub, E. (2006). "Reconciliation after genocide, mass killing, or intractable conflict: Understanding the roots of violence, psychological recovery, and steps toward a general theory"
RPF eventually defeated government army and took over Kigali as new authority
Ongoing equality efforts and requirements
Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence.
Primary:
Hutus and Tutsis
Secondary
:
Radio Television Libre des Milles Collines
(RTLM), propaganda
Li, D (2004). "Echoes of violence: considerations on radio and genocide in Rwanda".

Li, D (2004). "Echoes of violence: considerations on radio and genocide in Rwanda". Journal of genocide research (1462-3528), 6 (1), p. 9.

Other Influences
: Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, UN, US, Belgium, France
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
What is Driving the Conflict?
: Mistrust and fear caused during Rwanda's Belgian colonization, which fostered inequality and tension
Needs and Fears:
Hutu Needs: Power
Hutu Fears: Return of Tutsi refugees and their potential revenge
Tutsi Needs: Equality, Return to Homeland
Tutsi Fears: Continue to be refugees, no representation in government
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
Key Issue:
The signing of the Arusha Accords
Phase of Conflict:
Post-Conflict Peace Building
Who suffered the most?
: Tutsi civilians
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
Resources and Capacities
:
Hutus
had government power and military equipment but RAF was not trained
Tutsis
had combat experience in Uganda with RPF but lacked political power and numbers
State of relationship among leaders
: Some moderate Hutus protected Tutsis, only to be killed by extremist Hutus
Channels of communication
: Initial lines of communication between international actors and Rwanda cut off after genocide began
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
Previously peaceful?
: Yes, before Belgian rule
Settlement Attempts and Failures
: Many attempts to reconcile Hutu and Tutsi conflict by power sharing and allowing refugees to return
Failure Pattern:
Government stalled implementation each time, causing Tutsi mistrust and retaliation
Dehumanizing the Tutsis enabled the Hutus to disengage from typical feelings of empathy toward fellow humans and allowed them to murder the Tutsis without restraint
Political
Hutus
Tutsis
Cultural: Authoritarian government lead to strong obedience and respect to authority
Social: Identification as Hutu or Tutsi was integral; Hutu "hunts" and mass murdering further bonded them together and turned them further against Tutsis
Propaganda: False reports of atrocities caused uproar, continuing radio and media promotion urging Hutus to kill Tutsis
International actors pulled out during genocide, including UN peacekeepers with UNAMIR
Hutu-power ideology propagated through government
Hutus worried if Tutsis gained more power from Arusha Accords, would overthrow them
Hutu government had total control over citizens
Numerous policies in place discriminating against Tutsis
Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence.
Staub, E. (2006). "Reconciliation after genocide, mass killing, or intractable conflict: Understanding the roots of violence, psychological recovery, and steps toward a general theory"
United States Institute for Peace (2004). Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis
Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An Integrative Review. Personality & Social Psychology Review (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 10(3), 252-264. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1003_4
Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An Integrative Review.
Li, D (2004). "Echoes of violence: considerations on radio and genocide in Rwanda".
Government organized genocide with road blocks, patrols, local authorities, and citizens
Spread awareness about the root causes and effects of genocide
Advocate against discriminatory hostile leaders and active bystandership
Resolution
Reconciliation Efforts
Nongovernmental programs for Hutu and Tutsi survivors to work together by community building or agricultural work
Similar programs to share stories and come together in grief to heal
1988
March, 1993
April 7, 1994
July, 1993
1973
1959
Hutu rebellion against Belgians and Tutsis
1962
Rwanda gains independence
Hutu Juvénal Habyarimana takes control of Rwanda in a bloodless coup
The RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) is created by Tutsi refugees in Uganda.
1990
RPF invade Rwanda, civil war ensues
Ceasefire
Tutsi hate media propaganda begins
Arusha Accords agreement
August, 3 1993
April 6, 1994
Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana is killed when his plane is shot out of the sky
Genocide begins
Arusha Accords attempt to negotiate conflict before genocide was never implemented
International community should not have remained as bystanders
Important to consider reconciliation beyond institutional; focus also on social and psychological
Extremist groups should have been included in Arusha Accords process; also should have been implemented immediately
UN should develop a less Westernized response to conflicts to account for differences in political structure, economy, judicial system, and culture
5,500 UN troops dispatched after a month of genocide, but arrived after massacres ended
http://www.un.org/events/rwanda/backgrounder.html
International actors should have provided support after Arusha Accords to keep it in place, particularly with RPF and their supportive Hutu contacts
Despite an apparently obvious "good guy"/"bad guy" dichotomy, it is clear that the genocide in Rwanda was an extremely complex conflict with numerous causes, motivations, and lasting effects. This case will hopefully help lead to better conflict resolution and reconciliation processes in the future.
Halpern, J. & Weinstein, H. (2004). Rehumanizing the other: Empathy and reconciliation. Human Rights Quarterly, 26(3), 561-583
Clapham, C. (03/1998). "Rwanda: The Perils of Peacemaking". Journal of peace research (0022-3433), 35 (2), p. 193.

Clapham, C. (03/1998). "Rwanda: The Perils of Peacemaking".
Halpern, J. & Weinstein, H. (2004). Rehumanizing the other: Empathy and reconciliation.
http://www.un.org/events/rwanda/backgrounder.html
1926
Belgians issue policies to sharpen distinction between Hutus and Tutsis
Full transcript