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Transcript of Ancient India
collection of sacred texts, including verses, hymns, prayers, and poems (in Sanskrit)
4 books - Rig Veda - longest/oldest
•Brahmins (priests and religious scholars)
•Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors)
•Vaishyas (herders and merchants)
•Shudras (servants, farmers, and laborers)
Karma governs what happens to people’s souls after death.
Souls had many lives.
The type of body the reborn soul received depended on the soul’s karma.
Indus River Valley
Details unknown b/c of remains underwater & undecipherable language
No evidence of king or imperial rule - yet highly organized cities
By 1500 BCE - cities were abandoned
Not to be confused with Nazi racist thought
AKA - Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
Nomadic, pastoral people migrated into India
Spoke Sanskrit - oral history - written later
Rig Veda 10.90: 11-12
When they divided the Man, into how many parts did they apportion him?What do they call his mouth, his two arms and thighs and feet?
His mouth became the Brahmin; his arms were made into the Kshatriya;
his thighs the Vaishyas; and from his feet the Shudras were born.
Lawbook of Manu
Karma which springs from the mind, from speech, and from the body, produces either evil or good results; by karma are caused the conditions of men, the highest, the middling, and the lowest.
The Laws of Manu 12.3.
Let a Brahmana's name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya's be connected with power, and a Vaisya's with wealth, but a Sudra's (express something) contemptible.
The Laws of Manu 2:31
By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house.
In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.
Laws of Manu 10: 147-148
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
What is it?
Conquest? Environmental disaster? Earthquake?