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Sources and Forces for Curriculum Renewal-Society,Knowledge,

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on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Sources and Forces for Curriculum Renewal-Society,Knowledge,

Sources and Forces for Curriculum Renewal-Society,Knowledge,and the Learner
Society as Curricular Source and Influence
According to Tyler,the school must employ some system for analyzing and selecting from contemporary life learning objectives appropriate to the school’s clientele.
Contemporary Life Needs
Spencer views that science is the key to complete living
Social Problem Solving
Progressive schools of that era commonly designed their curricula so as to focus on such life-problem areas.
Three Fundamental Factors in Educative Process for the development of curriculum
1. Nature of the learner
2. Social conditions and ideals
3. Selection and organization of knowledge

Life Experiences
To make the curriculum relevant to life,many schools during the 1970’s began to offer academic credit for a wide range of social experience.
School and Society
Society is both a source and an influence whereby the school develops its objectives and curriculum.
Life Experiences
To make the curriculum relevant to life,many schools during the 1970’s began to offer academic credit for a wide range of social experience.
Cultural Heritage
Perennialist sees the chief task of education as the preservation and transmission of cultural heritage.
Testing as a Nationalizing Influence on the Curriculum
Madaus and Kellaghan point out that although policymakers cannot mandate what goes on in the classroom, they have been using testing programs as an accountability device to extent curriculum.

Test serves to shape the curriculum.
Skill Mastery as Preparation
Education conservatives embrace the fundamental skills model curriculum for the elementary level of schooling on the ground that the mastery of three R’s is essential for successful learning in the academic discipline.
Fundamental Skills
According to Bernal, the new working class needed enough acquaintance with the three R’ir jobs properly.
Society as Curricular Source and Influence-Changing Functions of Schooling
The function of the school and the model of curriculum embraced at a particular time are reflections of the demands and expectations of larger society..
Societal Demands and Pressures
According to Robert Hutchins, the system must reflect what the political community wants it to do. .
Contemporary Life Needs
Spencer views that science is the key to complete living
Knowledge Production-disciplinary
Individual- Social Growth
The World of Knowledge as Curricular Source and Influence
Subject-Matter Specialist
Tyler viewed subject specialists as the key source of educational objectives as far as organized knowledge in concerned.
Curriculum Generalists
The cognitive taxonomy categorizes the retention of information as knowledge, students often find themselves memorizing and regurgitating such information without comprehending the material and without the ability to apply the information to different situations. The error of equating information with knowledge is pointed out by Dewey.
The cognitive taxonomy can serve as a valuable device for enabling teachers to design instructional activities encompassing a wider range of cognitive learnings.
* Classroom recitation
* pupils assignment
* teacher made test
focus mainly on the recall of specifics and the ways and means of dealing with specifics.

* Tyler - education is a process of changing the behavior patterns of people
* Skinner - student is "taught" in the sense that he is induced to engage in new forms of behavior and in specific forms upon specific occasions.... teaching is simply the arrangement of contingencies of rein forcement
* Deweys - education "that reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to the meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience.
1. the learner as an autonomously thinking, socially responsible individual who is capable of controlling his or her destiny
2. the learner as an organism to be conditioned so as to respond in an externally controlled and predictable way
Contemporary Life Needs
Spencer views that science is the key to complete living
Dewey contended that educational aims in a democracy must be governed and derived through learning activities that enable the learner to have foresight of results, rather than having such aims dictated by the teacher and met through a serial aggregate of imposed task.
Contrasted against the two conflicting conceptions of the learner, which sees the learner as a mind to be disciplined and from the theory of mental discipline
* exercise
Cognitive processes are classified in a hierarchical order, from simple o complex levels of thinking
1. knowledge
2. comprehension
3. application
4. analysis
5. synthesis
6. evaluation
7. problem solving
8. creations

The affective processes interests, attitudes, appreciations and values are inseparable from the cognitive processes.
* without having one's interests, attitudes, appreciations, and values engaged.
Shows how search for and applications of knowledge go on in the larger society.
Caswell stressing the role of curriculum generalists are able to see across the subject division and boundaries with a view to a total educational offering of the school or colleges.
The schools of a free society are expected to play a mediative role in connection with the influences of other social institutions on the child and adolescent.

*How we think is virtually directed by an organic interaction of cognitive and affective processes.
*the fact that one is knowledgeable about the different forms of thought is no guarantee taht one will be a good thinker. Good thinking is dependent on the attitudes, values, and motivations that animate one's character.
*the effective teacher knows that it is not enough for students to learn their lessons. However succesful a teacher may be in developing the students ability to make technical analysis of classical literary works or of scientific phenomena, the educational process cannot be considered successful if it leaves the pupil with a dislike for such material
Developmental task of Childhood, Adolescence
The most systematic work in this area has been conducted in the field of physical education, health, dance, and athletics with the emergence of kinesiology or the study of human movement
handwriting, swimming style, new art technique, industrial operation, playing the piano, modern dance
* the cognitive and affective processes are interdependent with the psychomotor processes.
The school must play a vital role in Erikson's developmental stage theory, for the school is uniquely endowed with the mission of socializing the rising generation and engaging children and youth in a systematic learning environment so as to develop their fullest potentials.
Developmental stages:
1. Oral-sensory stage 5. Adolescent stage
2. Muscular-anal stages 6. Young adulthood stage
3. Locomotor-genital stage 7. adulthood stage
4. Latency stage 8. maturity-stage
1. Physiological needs- such as physical health
2. Social needs - such as belonging, security, competence and status
3. Ego-integrative needs - such as self esteem, enlightenment, autonomy and over all personality integration.
defined as " a task which arises at or about a certain period in the life of the individual, successful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness to the individual, disapproval by society and difficulty with later task.
*The human organism is seen not as a set of mechanical responses but as a being capable of continuous growth through the reconstruction of experience.
*The organic interdependence of affective and cognitive processes is supported by research that consistently shows a causal link between affect and achievement
Angela Dela Cruz
Jordan Ventura
Mediative Role of School Behavioral Science
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