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Forestry in Canada
Transcript of Forestry in Canada
Corporate vs. Environmental Viewpoint
Sustained Yield Forest Management
Pulp and Paper
Central Canada (Ontario & Quebec)
Most trees aren't large enough for lumber.
Ideal for easy pulp and paper manufacturing.
Large enough trees for lumber.
Trees easy to peel into layers to be glued into plywood.
Lots of money spent protecting from pests.
Protected before any sign of pests.
If pests were to spread, company would lose a lot of money.
Cheaper to prevent than to restore.
The Decreasing Number of Sawmills
Now there are newer, larger sawmills to be used.
Better methods for small logs.
Better waste management.
Scraps burned to fuel mill.
- Trees and Vegetation naturally regenerate
-Same as what happens naturally
- Take efforts to preserve biodiversity and wildlife habits
- Replant Trees
Aerial Spraying of Pesticides
By: Sasha, Miranda, Kaia and Alia
CGC1DG, P. 2
Canada: Divided Up
Commercial Forest Regions
Boreal Forest Region
Most eastern part of Newfoundland to border between Yukon and Alaska. Southern Canada.
Long, very cold, dry winters; short, cool, moist summers.
Mostly coniferous like pine and fir, a few deciduous like birch and aspen.
Taiga Forest Region
Labrador to border between Yukon and Alaska.
Long, very cold, very dry winters; short, hot, dry summers.
Nearly completely coniferous, mainly spruce and pine.
West Coast Forest Region
Eastern coast of British Columbia.
Humid, mild winters; very humid, warm summers.
Nearly entirely deciduous, mainly arbutus and garry oak.
Montane Forest Region
Western British Columbia.
Slightly cool winters; warm, temperate summers.
Mix of coniferous and deciduous trees like ceder, evergreens, and juniper.
Mixed Forest Region
Easter coast of Ontario and Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and P.E.I.
Varied, but mainly cold, dry winters; warm, humid summers.
Both coniferous and deciduous, primarily pines, juniper, aspens and oaks.
Land Cover of Canada
Commercial Forest in Provinces & Territories
Provinces & territories with more than 45% commercial forests:
North West Territories
Why do these provinces and territories have so much commercial forest?
Almost all coastal, which makes it easier and cheaper to export.
Mostly in the Boreal Forest Region, where there are many different types of wood to harvest.
Commercial Forest in Forest Regions
% of forest region that are commercial forest:
Boreal Forest Region: 66.96%
Taiga Forest Region: 24.95%
Montane Forest Region: 92.17%
Mixed Forest Region: 95.86%
West Coast Forest Region: 85.14%
Highest: Array of different trees for different uses, fertile soil, dense and fast-growing tee species.
Lowest: Very few trees, almost no trees large enough to be used, unfertile soil.
Comercial v.s Non-Commercial Forests
Which is more common in each province or territory?
Newfoundland & Labrador:
Eye of the Taiga
- Clear cutting removes ground cover
- Soil erodes into streams
-Kills fish and water life
-When forest canopy removed changes temperature
-Diversity lost when uniform seedlings of species are planted
- Ex. Monoculture
- Inexpensive and Effective way to kill insect pests
- Pests must be killed to save trees
-Insect Pests will harm trees more
- Low toxic effect on birds, fish and mammals
-Endanger wildlife and disrupt forest ecosystem
- Harmful to local residents
- Increased cancer rates and birth defects
-Other effective options
- Plant variety of tree species
-Forest less attractive to single pest
- Pest Insects released into area
Pest Insects: Insects which only eat one thing
A clear cut boreal forest.
Canada= short growing season
-Hard to compete with other countries
-Must make cost effective
-Two goals to achieve that:
1. Achieve sustained yield management
- Keep trees growing
2. Minimize costs
- If not jobs and money in Canada will be lost
- Sustained yield management not practiced everywhere in Canada
- Companies cut small trees
- Not enough time to grow fully
- Causes forest stocks to be depleted
-Increases cost of logging
-Less competitive in world market
Natural occurrences in the life cycle of forest ecosystems
Heat required to open cones of pine species, disperses seeds
In order to encourage this processes, 'controlled burns' are created
52% of forest fires are caused by humans
More likely to be extinguished by fire fighters
More valuable land; near residential areas, accessible
Dangerous; burns quickly, creates hurricane-like winds
48% of forest fires are caused by lightning
Left to burn out alone, because often in remote, less valuable areas
The renewal and conservation of forests by controlling the use of resources at a reasonable rate
Restricting elimination of certain trees, or certain areas
Making up for the elimination of trees by replanting