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Ocean Energy

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Emma Shellhamer

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of Ocean Energy

Ocean Energy

Social Aspects
Spotlight: Surface Attenuator
Float Horizontally on the Surface
Large Tube Sections Connected by Universal Joints
Sections Free to Move Independently
Hydraulic Rams Driven at Joints
Hydraulic Motors Spin Generators that Produce Electricity
Wave Energy
3 Main Methods:
1. Vertically Oriented Point Absorber
(~200 kW)
2. Wave Turbine Emplacement
(Varying kW)
3. Horizontally Oriented Surface Attenuator
Environmental Impacts
Tidal Barrages:
Rourke, Fergal, Fergal Boyle, and Anthony Reynolds. "Tidal Energy Update 2009." Applied Energy. 87. (2010): 398-409. Print.
Phillips, O. "On the generation of waves by turbulent wind." Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2.5 (1957): 417-45. Print.
Reddy, M, and M Affholder. Descriptive Physical Oceanography. A A Balkema Publishers, 2002. 249. Print.
Bryden, Ian G. "Tidal Energy." Encyclopedia of Energy. By Cutler J. Cleveland. Vol. 1-6. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic, 2004. 139-50. Knovel. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Charlier, Roger Henri., and Charles W. Finkl. Ocean Energy: Tide and Tidal Power. Berlin: Springer, 2009.
Charlier, Roger Henri. Tidal Energy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982. Print.
El Bassam, Nasir Maegaard, Preben Schlichting, Marcia (2013). Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities - Strategies and Technologies toward Achieving Sustainability in Energy Generation and Supply. Elsevier.
Energy Information Administration (EIA). "Tidal Power." - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy. 4 Nov. 2013. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. Source referred to as “EIA”
Melnyk, Markian M.W. Andersen, Robert M. (2009). Offshore Power - Building Renewable Energy Projects in U.S. Waters. PennWell.
NOAA. "Tides and Water Levels." NOAA's National Ocean Service Education: Tides and Water Levels. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.
Pierce, Morris A. "Tidal Power." Encyclopedia of Energy. Vol. 4. Ipswich, MA: Salem, 2012. 1247-249. Oct. 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Rutledge, Kim. "Tidal Energy." - National Geographic Education. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.
Tidal Energy
Tidal Energy History
Wave Energy History
By Iain Grigsby & Emma Shellhamer
Guiding Questions:
What is the basic history behind ocean energy?
How does tidal energy function?
What is one main model used for harnessing energy from the tides?
How does wave energy function?
What is one main model used for harnessing energy from the waves?
How is ocean energy perceived by the world?
What are the environmental impacts of ocean energy?
What is the future of ocean energy?
Tidal Energy
Environmental Impacts
The Future
of Ocean Energy
Photo from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Moulin_maree_brehat.jpg
Photo from: http://www.southerncross.pentair.com/images/ProductImages/Service/Hydro_Turbine_Service/Hydro_Turbine_Inspection_Service.png
Photo from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Vickers_IWW.jpg
Photo from: http://pulse.edf.com/bundles/fo/image/2013/11/larance_846x492.jpg
Ebb & flow of tides
Spin turbines
Generate electricity
Delivered to grid
Other Factors:
Tidal patterns
Water's density
About 5 meters tidal range
120-400 GW
EIA states that "as of September 2012, India had 211 gigawatts (GW) of installed electricity generating capacity, mostly in coal-fired power plants, according to India's Central Electricity Authority."
Man-driven manipulation
free-flow designs
1. Tidal barrage
2. Tidal fence
3. Tidal turbine
3 Main Methods:
Tidal Barrage
Man- driven manipulation
Similar to hydraulic dam
Controls movement of water in order to combat tidal patterns
Target peak demand periods
Barrage, sluice gate, turbines
Not aesthetically pleasing
Initial investment is high
Potential low profit for companies
Tidal pattern inconsistencies
Storm damage & corrosive seawater
Complicated/delicate mechanical components
Low efficiency in conversion to electricity
Great potential [compare to wind energy]
Less expensive for consumers
New technologies & research
More prominent now than ever before
Possibilities for integration
Low noise/visual Impact
Negligible impact on sea creatures
High availability
Catching animals in turbines
Sediment build-up
Interrupts migration patterns
Decreased water salinity in barrage
Barrage itself disrupts ocean floor
Decreased tidal range
La Rance has been the only tidal barrage studied
10 years after construction, the environment was once again thriving
One source refers to the basin as a "small sea"
Non-damming models have low risk
Marine creatures getting stuck in turbines, but still not a large problem
For point absorber and surface attenuator, little to none
Minor disruption to sea floor at attachment points
Wave turbines could disrupt fish movement, take up small portion of beach habitat
a.k.a. Tidal Stream Generators
New technology
Tidal Wing & DTP
Supplement other renewables
Make the most of the locations available
Environmental trade-offs and research
Gateway systems
Benefits would outweigh costs in the end
Photo from: http://www.garlandmill.com/images/insidemill_big.jpg
Photo from: http://www.buch-der-synergie.de/c_neu_html/c_fotos_ok/wasserenergie/108a_bochaux_praceique.jpg
Photo from: http://www.textoscientificos.com/imagenes/energia/olas-Salter-Duck.jpg
Image from: http://australianmuseum.net.au/Uploads/Images/6149/t12.4d%20wave%20energy_big.jpg
Image from: http://www.china-aircon.com/upload/cleantechnica/opt.jpg
Image from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_SO9fvMBN06s/SpRdt0A7kjI/AAAAAAAAAHk/_QriPasvynE/s1600/wavepower.jpg

Photo from:http://charlesandnuttall.blogspot.com/2012/10/china-netherlands-sign-joint-agreement.html
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