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Nutrition by Anna Laskey

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on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of Nutrition by Anna Laskey

Nutrition - The components
of a healthy balanced diet.
By Anna Laskey

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Introduction
During this presentation I will be describing, explaining and evaluating the nutritional requirements for the sport of my choice being ice skating. I will be describing the components of a healthy, balanced diet and how they are appropriate to an ice skaters lifestyle. These will include Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, fibre, Water, Vitamins and Minerals. I will also explain how the different foods are prepared and what a balanced diet contains. I will then lead onto how all of these aspects are relevant to my sport. After this I shall be talking about the supplements and liquids that an ice skater could take and 2 meal plans and how they differ from a competition and rest day.
Carbohydrates
There are 2 types of carbohydrates, simple and complex. The main job of carbohydrates is that they give you energy. Both types of carbohydrates should be eaten if you want to eat a healthy and balanced diet.
Fats
Foods contain a combination of 3 certain types of fats, all of these having a different effect each on the levels of cholesterol which is found in our blood.

Protein
Protein has the job of Repair, Maintenance and Growth, this is why it is so important for an athlete to eat something with a source of protein in once they have finished competing, as it will help their body to mend if they had sustained any injury.
Protein has to keep being topped up on everyday as it is not stored in the body anywhere.
A high amount of protein can be found in Fleshy foods, such as chicken, fish and turkey.
A lower amount of protein could be found in eggs, grains and soy products.
Bibliography
Vitamins A, C, D, E & K
Minerals
There are 5 main types of minerals, including Zinc, Sodium, Calcium, Iodine and Iron. All of them having different purposes and some being better for you than others.
Simple Carbohydrates:
These are referred to as 'Simple Sugars'.
These can be found in refined (processed) sugars, especially white sugars. For example: sugar that you put in your tea and coffee, on your cereal and in certain sweets such as lolly pops.
Can also be found in nutritious foods as well. For example milk and certain fruits. These are better to have as they will also contain vitamins, Minerals and Fibre, all of which are needed in a healthy diet.
Simple Carbohydrates are the unhealthier option of the two as they contain much more sugar.
Complex Carbohydrates:
These are referred to as 'Starches'.
These are the better group of carbohydrates and also the healthier option to have, though both are needed in your diet to balance it out, also being more vital to an athletes diet.
They include grains such as wheat, which are used to make foods such as bread, pasta and rice.
Certain complex carbohydrates are better than others.
My Sport: Carbohydrates are vital in a Ice Skaters performance as they give you lots of energy and as the performances are quite long you will need this. You are best to eat something such as porridge or toast for breakfast and a quick snack before the performance so as to give you that extra energy which will make your performance better. Complex carbohydrates are better to have as they will give you more energy and it will be released slower, lasting for a longer period of time than simple carbohydrates would.
Saturated fats:
These have a negative effect on our blood cholesterol.
The amount that we have should be limited in our daily diet.
Saturated fats are found in fatty meats, dairy products, sweets, biscuits and cakes.
Polyunsaturated fats:
There are 2 types of this type of fats, these being Omega-3 and Omega-6, both types being good for you, but for different reasons.
Omega-3:
Can help reduce the risk of running high blood pressure and also reduce the risk of blood clotting occurring.
Found in Bread, cereals and fish
Omega-6:
This can help lower your cholesterol.
Found in Brazil nuts, Walnuts, Sunflower seeds and oil.
Monounsaturated fats:
This type of fat helps you to lower cholesterol, so, like polyunsaturated fats it is good to have in your diet.
It is found in foods such as Peanuts, Seeds and Avocados.
My Sport: As a professional ice skater they would not be able to eat many saturated fats, as they are the most unhealthy and would have a negative effect on your performance and training, in the way that if you ate too many they could lead to weight gain, which would make it a lot harder to perform and make your performance a lot slower because of the added weight you are having to carry. For example in ice skating you have to perform lots of jumps and spins and if you were trying to perform a spin with extra weight it would put you off balance and make you spin with less grace and with a higher risk of falling, you would also be working harder trying to make your spin more successful, therefore reducing your energy levels affecting them for the rest of the performance as you are already worn out. It would also reduce the height of your jumps as you would become less agile and flexible and it would become harder to get into the air and cause more work for yourself, this would reduce your overall score and performance ranking. However it would be a good idea to have a mixture of both Polyunsaturated and Monounsaturated fats in your diet as they will effect your performance for the better because you are putting healthier things into your body which can help with lowering cholesterol, this could lead to a healthy heart , the healthier it is the less strain you will have to put on it.
My Sport: An ice skater should drink plenty of water all of the time, the same as any athlete especially during training, warming up and in between the actual performances, so as to keep you hydrated throughout and to keep your water supply constantly topped up as you lose water through sweating. This is so that the body doesn't become dehydrated and so that your joints are lubricated enough helping you to perform consistently well as you are able to move quicker and easier.
Water makes up around two thirds of the human body
It is very vital to our diet.
It flushes out waste and transports nutrients around the body
It helps for joints to move easily, assists with breathing, and regulating body temperature. This happens because as we exercise or do a certain sport, we get hot and sweat, meaning that we loose water and other substances such as salt.
Water
Vitamins are very important in our diet. They help to keep our skin, hair, eyes, teeth, bones, blood cells and nerves all in good condition. It also helps bone and tissue to form. There are many different types of vitamins, including vitamin A,B, C, D, E & K.
My Sport: Protein is very vital to a ice skaters diet. A source of protein should be took especially after each performance as if you were to fall or sustain any injury, protein is the component which helps with repair, maintenance and growth. During ice skating there is a high chance of falling such as when performing a jump as this is can be a complex move. Also even if no injury is sustained having a supply of protein makes your ligaments stronger bit by bit as it is adding the extra protection.

Vitamin A: This vitamin is essential
for normal vision as it prevents
night blindness. Can be found in food
such as carrots and carrot juice &
mangoes.

Vitamin C: It is good for the immune system so this helps to prevent colds. It is also good for people who have anemia (a lack of iron) as it helps you to absorb it. Found in foods such as fresh fruits, especially citrus fruits. E.G pineapple, Peppers, Strawberries and Oranges.
Vitamin D: It is good for absorbing Calcium, which is required for normal growth of teeth and bones. The biggest source of where to get vitamin D from is the sun. It can also be found in foods such as Sardines, Salmon and milk.
Vitamin E: It helps to protect your cells
from being damaged and is also to do with the health of your red blood cells. Found in foods such as Nuts, Vegetable oil & whole grains.
Vitamin K: Your body only needs a tiny amount of vitamin K and it is given to babies. It is found in foods such as Cauliflower, Broccoli and green leafy vegetables like spinach.
My Sport: In ice skating, just like any other sport, all of these vitamins are required for different purposes so as to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to make your performance at the end of it as good as possible as they all help with general body functions as explained above. A source of vitamin D is needed as you are not naturally absorbing this from the sun during your performance.
Zinc: It helps us to heal wounds as it produces collagen and is good for your immune system. Zinc can be found in cooked oysters, Beef, Lamb, Eggs & Yogurts.
Calcium: It helps us to develop strong teeth and bones. It can be found in Skimmed milk, non-fat yogurt, cheeses, broccoli, certain cereals and vegetables.
Iodine: It is used by the thyroid (neck gland, to make a hormone called Thryroxine, This is necessary for growth, the nervous system development and is also used for energy production, it will also keep the processes that are at work in your body a constant speed.It can be found in seafood, Vegetables,
Meat, Eggs & Milk.
Sodium: Sodium is salt. It is involved with cell processes. If you have too much sodium in your diet, it can lead to certain health problems such as dehydration, high blood pressure and possibly heart disease. It can be found in many different foods such as baking soda, most meats especially ham and bacon, canned soups, salad dressings, sauces and a range of processed foods.
Iron: It is needed to make haemoglobin, which is found in your blood and is used to help fight infection. It is also needed for the purpose of helping your brain and nervous system to function. Can be found in foods such as red meat, eggs, seafood, green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, baked potatoes and pumpkin seeds.
My Sport: The worst mineral is sodium and this is the one that should be avoided the most as it can cause dehydration and high blood pressure if you consumed too much, however the rest are all vital to have if you are to maintain a healthy balanced diet, as they all play a different but important part within helping your body which i have explained above, unless they are stored in the body as they help your body to develop.
Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12
B1 - This vitamin helps to convert the carbohydrates in energy. It also helps the heart, muscles and nervous system to work and be able to function properly. Found in bread, cereals and pasta.
B2 - It is essential for growth and the production of the red blood cells. It can also like vitamin B1, can help with turning the carbohydrates that you eat into energy. Found in foods such as meat, eggs and dairy products.
B3 - It helps for you to maintain healthy skin and also turns all different types of food into energy. It also helps with your nerves. B3 is found in foods such as red meat, fish and peanuts.
B6 - It helps your body to break down proteins. It is also a essential vitamin for making red blood cells. As well as some of the other vitamins it also helps with your nerve and brain functions. Found in foods such as Potatoes, cereals and bananas.
B9 - It helps with the health of your red blood cells found in your body. It also helps with DNA production. Can be found in asparagus, dried beans and green leafy vegetables.
B12 - It helps with red blood cells again and with the function of your nerve cell functions. It can be found in foods such as fish, red meats and some dairy products.

My Sport: In ice skating, the same as most other sports, these vitamins are all required to maintain a healthy and balanced athletes diet.
What a balanced diet contains
A balanced diet contains a mixture of all of the different types of food groups that i explained in previous slides. A mixture of carbohydrates, fats, protein, water, fibre, vitamins and minerals are all needed in a healthy and balanced diet, whereas as some should be ate more than others, for example your daily intake of carbohydrates should be higher than your daily intake of fats. Your daily intake of the food groups should be based on the food pyramid.
How food is prepared
Fibre
There are many different ways in which food can be prepared. These include of:
Baking - When you cook something in the oven. Foods you may use this method with: cakes and biscuits.
Boiling - When you cook something in hot water. Foods you may use this method with: potatoes, vegetables, rice, eggs and pasta.
Grilling/Broiling - You put it under the grill. Foods you may use this method with bacon, fish and chicken.
Frying - When you cook something in oil or fat. Foods you may use this method with: eggs, bacon and mushrooms.
Microwaving - You cook it in the microwave, a quicker method. Foods you may use this method with: porridge, ready-meals and jacket potatoes.
Roasting - When you cover the food in oil and cook it in the oven. Foods you may use this method with: potatoes, chicken and beef.
Hot smoking - This is when you cook or preserve the food while exposing it to smoke from burning. Foods you may use this method with: Salmon, Fish and chicken.
My sport - Some of these preparations of food are healthier than others. For example the method of boiling is healthy, whereas frying is really unhealthy compared to this. As an ice skater, you would want to be preparing your food in the healthiest way possible one of which is boiling.
B5 - It converts all different types of food groups into energy, for example, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It also helps with your overall skin quality and your wounds to recover. It must be consumed every day as the body does not store it.
It can be found in many foods such as dairy products, meat and whole grains.
B7 - It is important for energy production and cell growth. It helps to improve the control of your blood sugar, so will help people with diabetes. Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins and also helps to Found in foods such as meats and dairy products.
The lower down the pyramid, the more vital the food/drink is in your diet and are the ones that you should be eating constantly. Whereas the higher up the pyramid, are the foods that you should eat less of and should be limited in your daily diet.
Fibre is essential towards your diet as it helps with your digestive system.
Another advantage to eating fibre is that you are more likely to feel full for longer and will not be wanting more food for a longer period of time.
Fibre is found in certain foods such as brown bread, breakfast cereals, some vegetables such as potatoes and certain fruits, for example apples.
My Sport - Fibre is important in a ice skaters diet because as it makes you feel full for a longer period of time , you will not need to eat as much, meaning that you will not be weighed down with food, which would lead to a slow performance, for example you would not be able to pick up the speed going into jumps, meaning you wouldn't get the height needed and you would not be able to spin quickly enough, resulting in a worse score, lowering your position on the leaderboard. Instead you will become more agile, flexible and will be able to move at the correct speed, you will also not loose energy , meaning you will not run out of energy. Fibre is good for you to have for breakfast because you will be full for a longer period of time meaning that your food will have digested before your performance and you will still remain full, so i am able to carry out the performance without feeling hungry, meaning that my concentration will be on the performance and not food.
According to the food pyramid you should be having the most water, out of all of the food pyramid and should limit yourself to not many Fats. If you missed out on the foods towards the bottom of the table it would have a negative effect on your diet in the end, whereas if you were to miss out on foods that were placed near the top of the pyramid it wouldnt matter as much.
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219718.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_food_preparation
Healing with vitamins (BOOK)
BTEC LEVEL 2 FIRSTS IN SPORT (BOOK)
Web Definitions
Supplements and liquids
Meal Plans
Competition day

Rest day
The supplements that are available for athletes to take:
My Sport: For an ice skater it would be good for them to take a protein shake after the performance as it will help them to recover if they have sustained any injury during their training or performance. For example if they had pulled a muscle. It would also be good for an ice skater to take something to boost their energy as the performances can last quite a long time. Complex carbohydrates would be a good option for this as they give you a long lasting supply of energy.
Promoting Muscle Repair & Growth
• You should take a source
of protein.
• Protein shakes – these contain:
Whey protein concentrate, Casein (isolate) – This will provide about 22 – 50g of protein.
• This will help especially after a competition as it helps with repair, maintenance & growth which may be helpful, if you had sustained any injuries whilst performing..

For boosting energy
• It will be something
that contains lots of carbohydrates, electrolytes, caffeine or taurine.
• This will help with gymnasts long performances to provide you with the supply of energy needed.
• It will only work and will take full effect when you are tired and it will not work otherwise if you are already full of energy.

Helps you train harder for
longer
• Creatine Monohydrate –
can come in a variety of different forms, such as powders.
• Improves power, strength, growth, speed and lean mass.
• It reduces overall recovery time and recovery between each rest in between certain exercises within training.
• Helps the body to produce ATP.

Before:
7:30am - Breakfast where you should have a bowl of porridge as it contains a slow release of carbohydrates, which are good because they will give you a long lasting supply of energy. A glass of water to keep your body hydrated which will help you to perform better, because you will be able to concentrate more and your joints will be lubricated.
9:00am - You should be having a quick snack, a piece of fruit being a banana as it contains potassium, comes under the vitamins/minerals section, one in which should be consumed frequently and giving you a long lasting supply of energy.
9:30am - Whilst warming up a glass of water to keep your body topped up and replacing what it has lost.
During:
10:00am-1:00pm - Keeping sipping water between performances so as to remain hydrated.
After:
1:30pm - For your main meal you should not be having a lot of food as it will weigh you down while performing, so you should be having a meal that contains a lot of carbohydrates, that being wholemeal Pasta so as to give you a slow release of energy and makes you feel full for longer. A glass of water.
5:00pm - A protein shake so as to help with any injuries or strains that you may have picked up whilst performing and just maintaining the standards of your muscles.
6:00pm- Hot tomatoes on 3 rounds of wholemeal toast, still a light meal but substantial enough. A glass of water.
7:30pm - F
inal drink of milk, containing calcium helping with teeth & bones.
Breakfast:
8:00am - For breakfast a healthy cereal being fruit and fibre, giving you a good start to the day. A drink of fresh juice for the vitamin C.
10:00am - A healthy snack being a banana, giving you a slow release of energy. It also contains potassium and fibre.
11:00am - A glass of water.
Lunch:
1:00pm - You would eat a healthy balanced diet with a mixture of vitamins, minerals, proteins and carbohydrates included, so a roast dinner including chicken being the protein, healthier than red meat, vitamins and minerals in different vegetables being carrots, broccoli (contains a high iron supply), garden peas and cauliflower and carbohydrates through boiled potatoes, the healthiest way to prepare them as you are not adding any additional fat. A glass of water to flush the food down after the meal.
3:00pm - A snack being an apple, counting towards one of your 5 a day through a healthy snack.
4:30pm - A glass of water.
Tea:
6:00pm - A lighter meal as you would not want to be having two large meals in a day, so a bowl of mushroom soup with 2 slices of wholemeal toast, and a healthy glass of blackcurrant for a drink, not anything fizzy.
7:30pm - A final drink of milk, providing you with the calcium which helps with strong teeth and bones.
Full transcript