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Temperate Rainforest

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Karolina Lee

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of Temperate Rainforest

Where is it? What are it's abiotic factors? Plants & Animals Weather Report Warnings Evaluation Attractions The temperate rainforest has a large variety of activities to do! A few recreational activities include hiking, fishing, canoeing, camping, bicycling and picnicking. Other biomes that surround the temperate rainforest include the boreal forest and the grasslands. Grasslands are known for bird watching while boreal forests are known for camping. Geographical Distribution Visit the Temperate Rainforest Human activities have been threatening this biome. These acts include deforestation, poaching and flooding. When humans are in demand for sturdy wood and land, the simple way for them to get it is by clear cutting a whole forest. This destroys entire ecosystems and results in more flooding in the forest. Trees are needed to absorb around 80% of all precipitation. Without them, floods are wiping out thousands of plants and animals that would have survived otherwise. Flash floods are a major problem in Australia and Chile where deforestation continues. On top of that, poaching for valuable animals has also brought some animals of the temperate rainforest closer to extinction. A few endangered species are the spotted owl, the pudu and the Juan Fernandez firecrown. The temperate rainforests has a large amount of biodiversity. Thousands of creatures make this biome their home, and if temperate rainforests were to disappear, no other locations would have the same climate, in which they thrive in. This forest is locally useful too, providing lumber for buildings or products. Plants in the temperate rainforest could also be potential medicines for future sicknesses. In the end, the temperate rainforest can be seen as globally and locally important. By: Pola, Katrina, & Jeremiah Abiotic Factors: The major temperate rainforests are located between 38°-56° South Latitude and 38°-61° North latitude. In other words, this biome can be found on the Northwest coast of North America (coastal BC), Southwest coast pf South America, New Zealand, and South Australia. Native Plants The Rangiora (Brachyglottis Repanda) Douglas Fir Mosses & Lichens Native Animals Banana Slug Short-Beaked Echidna Cross Bills Cooperation & Competition This native plant of New Zealand might not have an adaptation for the high levels of water, causing many to drown, but it does have a certain smell. In order to survive the rangiora uses the smell to attract all types of animals, most importantly pollinating insects. Without the pollinating insects, this plant would not thrive. On the other hand, animals who have planned to consume the plant quickly realize that the plant is poisonous when eaten. These animals memorize the scent and remember to not go near the poisonous plants. This adaption keeps a few predators away from the rangiora. Soil: This biome has extremely rich soils full of nutrients. The soil is enriched with leaves, twigs, fallen logs and dead organisms(organic, decaying matter). It is a perfect place to get fertile soil.
Weather: The weather has a great impact on this biome. The annual precipitation is over 200cm, which gives the temperate rainforest the ability to have a wide variety of unique plants and animals living in this area. Even when it doesn't rain, the air's still moist. The reason why they have so much precipitation is because these forests are located on the windward side of the mountains, right beside the coast where ocean winds carry/release large amounts of water.
Light: Light is a bit harder to come across here. The sun is usually blocked by the clouds or by the tall canopy. This creates a very humid and dark forest floor, where mushrooms, fungi and insects thrive. This type of tree located in the temperate rainforest of British Columbia has a maximum height of 60 meters. It can grow very tall due to the high amounts of precipitation in this area. The Douglas fir grows this tall to obtain sunlight, since it depends on the sun for photosynthesis. Another adaptation would be that it can tolerate part time shade. When the douglas fir isn't fully grown out yet, many other tall trees dominate the sky, leaving little sunlight left. Many mosses and lichens are found all over the place in this particular biome. Since light can be an issue on the forest floor, mosses often grow on branches and lichens cling on tree trunks to absorb more sunlight. This adaptation is an example of a commensalism. The Banana slug is the second largest species of slug in the world, with a whopping maximum length of 9.8 inches. They are very common in some parts of the forest and have a very unique adaptation. Since it rains frequently in the temperate rainforest, the slug has evolved into being able to absorb water through its skin. This increases the slugs survival and helps other plants from being over watered by getting rid of excess water. The average annual rainfall is over 200cm and the average temperatures range from 5C-25C. The temperature is largely influenced by the nearby ocean. The chart below shows the monthly average temperates and precipitation in Vancouver BC, located in a temperate rainforest biome. Suggested Supplies This animal is native to Australia's temperate rainforests. The Short Beaked Echidna is a spiky ant-eater who tends to live near streams since edible, small insects live nearby. When encountered by a vicious, large predator, the Short Beaked Echidna is not able to out run them so instead they use their adaptation that allows them to curl into a ball, exposing only its frightening spikes to the large animals. This makes an excellent defense for the Short Beaked Echidna. Another adaptation that they have allows them to survive sudden flash floods in the area. They are able to slow down their own heart rate to conserve oxygen needed for their body, letting them stay underwater for the duration of a flash flood. Cross Bills are native to the Northwest coast of North America. These little birds have a scissor-like beak specifically for getting seeds out of pine cones. This is an important adaption since most trees are cone-bearing (coniferous) in the temperate rainforest. Cooperation and competition occurs throughout all of the biomes on Earth, including the temperate rainforest.
Cooperation: One form of cooperation is called commensalism, and it occurs between Spanish Moss and the trees it grows on. This type of moss grows on trees to obtain sunlight without harming or benefiting the tree.
Competition: This happens not only between animals; it happens between plants too! The spotted knapweed is very competitive when it comes to getting ground. It releases chemicals into the soil, preventing the growth of other plants and allowing the knapweed to easily populate. Clothing: Bring a rain jacket and other rain gear even if the weather forecast doesn't call for rain. The weather can change quickly in the temperate rainforest. Remember to wear several layers when visiting this biome, so that you can stay warm and remove any layers if it gets too warm. People should also try and avoid to wear cotton since the rainforest tends to be moist throughout all seasons and this material absorbs moisture, rather than repelling it. It's also a good idea to bring a hat and an extra pair of socks (in case your shoes get wet). Equipement: One of the best things to bring with you into the temperate rainforest (especially in the summer) is insect repellent. The warm, damp moisture of the temperate rainforest can result in large amounts of mosquitos, black flies, deer flies and horse flies. All of these insects can make hiking and camping uncomfortable. If you plan to be camping in the temperate rainforest, plan for wet weather. Bring tarps to hang over picnic tables and tents. Bring storage containers for storing food, to keep it both dry and safe from wildlife, such as bears. Also, bring portable drinking when you're exploring the outdoor. You cannot trust natural water to be safe to drink. Tasmanian Devil The tasmanian devil makes its home in bushes located in the outskirts of the south Australian temperate rainforest. It's black fur with white stripes provides terrific camouflage in the night. It also has a unique way of handling predators and prey. When hunting, this animal sneaks up on its prey and startles it with a dreadful screech. The animal is startled long enough for the tasmanian devil to make its kill. When encountered with a predator, it uses it's screech once again but also lets out a stench similar to a skunks. This convinces the predators that the tasmanian devil is in fact a ferocious animal, making them flee for their own safety. Great Otway National Park Located in Australia, this park is very popular with tourists. The Great Otway National Park only started in 2004 when four parks combined into one great park. It contains rugged coastlines, sandy beaches and rock platforms. In the north it features magnificent waterfalls, calm lakes and tall forests. It's a tremendous place for sight seeing. Fiordland National Park This park located in New Zealand is a popular destination for alpine climbers and hikers. It is a challenging hiking destination, but it provides excellent views for sight seeing. Many are attracted to the fiord called Milford Sound, created by glaciers long ago. Climate Change Having global warming on the rise, the climate in this biome is rapidly changing. With increased temperatures occurring, more forest fires have sprouted. The temperate rainforest takes several hundred years to mature, so fires pose a lasting danger. If the average temperature increases 2 degrees Celsius for every 100 years, tree species would have to migrate 1-3 miles every year, making forests smaller and less diverse. The amount of precipitation is also not as constant as before, making trees grow slightly smaller in size. Temperate rainforests currently take over about 8% of earth, but with climate change and disastrous human activities, that percentage is decreasing by the year.
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