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Sports Injuries

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max austin

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of Sports Injuries

The body's physical mechanisms that respond when an injury takes place. These are initiated to repair and protect the damaged tissue.
Physiological responses
Sports Injuries
As soon as an injury occurs, the body responds in a number of ways. Damage to body tissue initiates the primary damage response mechanism. the two main signs and symptoms are pain and inflammation. causes such as external trauma, overload, repeated load, pressure and friction can cause inflammation, which is associated with the majority of sports injuries. Inflammation is caused by a number of factors, which trigger other signs and symptoms:

Accumulation of fluid surrounding the injury
Redness due to an increase in blood flow
Tender to touch
Impaired functioning and range of motion
Damaged tissue
Bleeding is a major physiological response to all injuries. When an acute injury occurs to the body, the damaged tissue will bleed into the surrounding tissues. The amount of bleeding that takes place will be specific to the type and severity of injury. There are two types of Haemotoma:

Intermuscular - bleeding occurs within the compartment of the muscle, but does not steep into the surrounding tissue.
Intramuscular - blood escapes into the surrounding tissue (for example, different muscle compartment)

Bleeding and Haemotoma
The remodelling process restores the tissue at the site of an injury as close as possible to its origional state. From the time when an injury takes place, scar tissue starts to form. It is crucial that the correct treatments are applied to regain the origional functioning of the body part. The more severe an injury, the more diffucult it will be to restore damaged tissue to its origional state.
Importance of scar tissue in the remodelling process
Psychological response - the mental aspect of how an athlete copes and comes to terms with their injury and treatment.

Responses to injury - As well as physiological responses of the body to injury, psychological responses can cause stress to an athlete. The way a person deals with an injury varies between individuals and some potential negative psychological responses are listed below:

Fear - this can take many forms, including the fear of recurrence of an injury, and fear of not returning to full fitness.

Stress and anxiety - this can be felt by an athlete during competition. If the athlete then suffers from an injury, these feelings will increased. As an injury progresses, concerns regarding the athletes long and short term sporting prospects can become psychological issues.
Psychological responses
Motivational issues - some injuries can take a long time to heal. As the duration of an injury increases, an athletes motivation towards their sport may decrease.

Depression - some athletes may demonstrate symptoms of clinical depression, such as decreased energy levels, constant sadness, withdrawal from social contact.

Anger - this can be towards oneself, theb injury, and also other people.

Decreased confidence - this is very common for athletes who are returning to training and competition. An athlete may suffer from a lack of confidence in their own skill levels, and decreased confidence in their fitness and ability to push their body physically.

Denial - sometimes an athlete may try to deny the severity of an injury, and try to return to their sport too quickly. The sports performer needs to be aware of the nature of their injury and they must listen and take into consideration what a proffessional doctor/physio reccomends.

Frustration - this is a common issue for many athletes, particularlu long term injury. The majority of sports players will crave to return to competetion, and become frustrated by lack of physical exercise and/or their specialist sport.
Anxiety - this can occur during many phases of an injury often due to uncertainty regarding the treatment and rehabilitiation methods used.

Frustration - when an athlete cannot see immediate improvements, or if there is a plateau in progress, frustration will often set in.

Need for motivation - athletes will need to remain motivated during the often long road to recovery from an injury. Those involved in rehabilitation can often support with such motivational issues.

Used for goal setting - to ensure that athletes stay motivated, goal setting strategies are usefuil to keep track of progress and to see the improvements that have been made.

The psychological responses to a sports injury vary dramatically between individuals. Some may suffer no or few negative responses, whereas others may experience a number of psychological issues.


Response to treatment and rehabilitation
Hard tissue injury - injury to bones, joints and cartilage
Soft tissue injury - injury to muscles, tendons, ligaments, internal organs and skin

Types of sports injuries - Hard tissue damage:

Fractures:

Opened and closed fractures - a closed fracture is one where relatively little displacement of bone has occured, which therefore does not cause much damage to the soft tissue surrounding the injury. An open fracture is one in which the fractured bone comes through the skin. Open fractures have a high risk of infection, so it is vital that they are dealt with immediatley after injury occurs. All fractures are relatively serious injuries, and specialist proffessional attention should be sought in all cases.

Complete and incomplete fractures - Some fractures do not crack the full length of the bone. The is an incomplete fracture. Fractures where a complete break in the bone occurs are called complete fractures.
Different types of injuries
Specific to injury: The signs and symptoms of various injuries may differ and this must be considered during the initial diagnosis. For example, first, second and third degree sprains and strains will be different, and the physiological responses will be more pronounced.
Types of sports injuries
- Soft tissue damage
A Haemotoma - A haemotoma is a pocket of congealed blood caused by bleeding to a specific area of the body. Haemotomas may be small bruises, or can be more serious when they occur to different organs, or cause large amounts of blood flow disruption. The majority of haemotomas caused by sports injuries occur to the muscles, and are caused by impact or rupture. Muscular haemotomas caused by sports injuries occur to muscles, and are caused by impact of rupture. Muscular haemotomas fall into two main types: intermuscular and intra muscular. The size and shape of skeletal musclesvary dramatically, but the general structure remains similar.
Sprains and strains
Many people find it diffucult to differentiate between a sprain and strain. It is quite simply, as long as you have a reasonable understanding of basic anatomy:
A sprain is damage to ligaments
A strain is damage to muscle or tendon

Sprain - the causes of a sprain are generally a sudden twist, impact or fall that maje the joint move outside the normal range of movement. Sprains commonly occur to the ankle, wrist, thumb or knee, generally the parts of the body that are at risk when involved in specific sporting activities. The severity of sprains depends on different factors. Sprains can be categorised as either first, second or third degree, depending on severity:
first degree - stretching of ligament
second degree - partial tear of oigament
third degree - complete tear of ligament, or detachment of ligament from bone
Strain
Strain - A strain is damage to a muslc eor tendon caused by overstretching that particular area. Similar to a sprain, strain can result ina simple overstretching of the muscle or, in more serious examples, partial or even complete rupture. Strains can be common in sports involving dynamic lunging, particularly when combined with sprinting activities, and in contact sports. The severity of a strain is determined by a three grade categorisation system:
Grade 1 - relatively minor damage to the muscle fibres - less than 5%.
Grade 2 - the muscle is not completely ruptured, but more extensive damage to the fibres has occured.
Grade 3 - a complete rupture of the muscle has occured - in most cases this will require surgery and rehabilitation.
4 different types of sports injuries
Hard tissue damage

Hard tissue injury are prevelent in contact sports such as rugby, and an individual sports such as gymnastics. Hard tissue injuries include fractures. dislocations and cartilage injuries. Although sport can cause skeletal injuries as with other parts of anatomy. Exercise can result in strengtheniong and thickening of bone resulting in less bone injuries.

Fractures - A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone. Depending on the type of sport and how an injury takes place will depend on the type of break. The treeatmens for different fractures are slightly different and so the correct category of an injury has to be diagnosed. #

Open fractures - these kind of fractures has a high risk of infection. It is vital that they are dealt with immeditatly after the injury occurs. The appropriate first aid for this type of fracture is to bandage the wound immeditatly and prevent any bleeding if it occurs. The bandage should be large enough to cover the fracture completely.

Closed fractures - this is where there is a relatively little displacement of bone has occured, therefore does not cause much damage to the soft tissue surrounding the injury. The appropriate treatment would be use to saltaps to prevent swelling and to locate the fracture. After the fracture has been located a splint will be needed to realign the bone that has been displaced.

Impact of pyschological and physiological effects of injury
All of these psychological and physiological factors that I have stated and talked about during this whole presentation have many various effects on the performers themselves. Getting injured is a performers worst nightmare because no matter how long they are out for they still have to take time to recover and that injury can also stay with them forever and be a re-occuring injury.

During the period of time that performer is injured, they will doubt themselves and there motivation to keep working ahrd regardless of the injury, they will lose the determination and motivation that they once had as a performer and this could effect them massively. Depending on the amount of time a performer is out for can effect the psychological thoughts of that performer, if a performer is told that they out out for months and months if not years they can be so hurt and fed up by it that they just give up and try something else. Injuries can really effect performers and their mentality towards that sport, injuries are major setbacks for performers, for example a performer could have been working for years to compete in one competetion like the olympics and they get injured just before the event, it would be all that hard work for nothing and this would be so demoralising for the performer and would make them extremely fed up.
P5
Health and safety
A key responsibility of a sports coach is managing the safety of everyone involved in a coaching session. When working anyone under the age of 18 this responsibility becomes a legal obligation of a duty of care. A coach should consdier the health and safety of the participants before, during and after the session as a priority. It is often the head coachs responsibility to lead on health and safety, although assisstant coaches must also maintain a safe coaching environment at all times.

All sports carry an element of risk of injury; it is the role of the sports coach to:
Assess the risk
Protect athletes from injury and reduce the likelihood of risk
Deal with injuries and accidents when they occur

Although a coach may assess every risk and hazard and implement methods of reducing injury and keeping harm to a minimum, injuries can and will occur during sport and physical activity sessions. There are two major casues of injuries - extrinsic and intrinsic injuries.

Sports coaches may benefit from obtaining first aid qualifications to ensure they know what action to take if an athlete is injured. If you are not a qualified first aider, you should make a provision for first aid during coaching sessions, for example by ensuring that a qualified first aider is present. A coach should ensure that athletes seek professional advice as soon as possible if:
A major injury is sustained during a session - fracture, severe bleeding, head injury, severe swelling or bruising with pain
A minor injury is sustained during a session - muscle strain, muscle contusion, minor cuts or bleeding
They become ill - vomiting, headache, sore throat and dizziness.
First Aid – what would be the immediate treatment to someone injuring them selves by:

A large bleed


The emergency procedure for a large bleed would be to add compression to the source of the bleeding. For exmample if there was a large cut down the side of someones leg, then face the cut upwards so that blood cant poor out as fast, then you would need to bandage the cut up fairly tightly so that the blood is kept inside the body.

Unconscious

The emergency procedure for an unconscious person would be to keep them still and lying where you found them, but the safest thing to do would be putting them in the recovery position so that the persons airways are kept open and they can breathe.

Sprain of the ankle

The emergency procedure for a sprained ankle would be to relieve all that pressure off the ankle to avoid further damage, and also to remove anything around the ankle then apply ice to reduce swelling. You would usually followed the PRICED method as this is the best treatment for injuries like sprained ankles, I will talk more about PRICED in the next paragraph.

Common Treatments

PRICED -

P is for Protection, this means that we need to protect the injured person and the area being treated but also we need to protect ourselves in the situation. If the injury was on the sports field, stop the game. Protect the area being treated with a splint or banadage if possible. If the patient can move, carefully move them to a safer area using a stetcher or a crutch, but if there is any doubt, do not move the patient. R is for Rest, you need to allow an injury time to heal. Being brave and playing through the pain is not a good idea. Ensure rehabilitation time te allow even a small injury to heal. I is for Ice, by applying ice on to the injury, you will reduce the pain and inflammation. It is advisable to wrap the ice pack in a cloth to prevent cold burns on the skin. C is for Compression, compression of the swollen area will help to reduce the swelling. .
E is for Elevation, elevating the injured area so that it is above the heart reduces the flow of blood to the area and reduces swelling. Again, ensure the patient is completely comfortable and do not elevate an injured area if this causes excessive pain.

SALTAPS -

S stands for stop, this is where you need to stop and observe the injury. A is for ask, this is where you need to ask the performer questions about the injury. L is for look, this is where you need to look for specific signs and inidicators of injury. T is for touch, this is where you need to have a feel of the injury, to identify areas of swelling and where the actual injury is coming from. A is for active movement, this is where you get the athlete to move the injured area independantly. P stands for passive movement, this is where you move the injured part for the athlete. S stands for strenght testing, this is where you put pressure on the injury and ask them whether it hurts or not.

Bandaging

Hot/cold treatment

P5
Common Treatments

PRICED -

P is for Protection, this means that we need to protect the injured person and the area being treated but also we need to protect ourselves in the situation. If the injury was on the sports field, stop the game. Protect the area being treated with a splint or banadage if possible. If the patient can move, carefully move them to a safer area using a stetcher or a crutch, but if there is any doubt, do not move the patient. R is for Rest, you need to allow an injury time to heal. Being brave and playing through the pain is not a good idea. Ensure rehabilitation time te allow even a small injury to heal. I is for Ice, by applying ice on to the injury, you will reduce the pain and inflammation. It is advisable to wrap the ice pack in a cloth to prevent cold burns on the skin. C is for Compression, compression of the swollen area will help to reduce the swelling. .
E is for Elevation, elevating the injured area so that it is above the heart reduces the flow of blood to the area and reduces swelling. Again, ensure the patient is completely comfortable and do not elevate an injured area if this causes excessive pain.

SALTAPS -

S stands for stop, this is where you need to stop and observe the injury. A is for ask, this is where you need to ask the performer questions about the injury. L is for look, this is where you need to look for specific signs and inidicators of injury. T is for touch, this is where you need to have a feel of the injury, to identify areas of swelling and where the actual injury is coming from. A is for active movement, this is where you get the athlete to move the injured area independantly. P stands for passive movement, this is where you move the injured part for the athlete. S stands for strenght testing, this is where you put pressure on the injury and ask them whether it hurts or not.

Bandaging

Bandaging is an important response to injuries that requires blood stopages or pressure applied to certain injuries. For example if an athlete will not stop bleeding then a bandage is required to wrap around that injury so blood cannot pass through the cut and so that blood is stopped from being transported to this area.

Hot/cold treatment

Ice treatment is the main cold treatment, ice reduces and stops swelling, it also helps relieve pain because it makes ther areas around tbe injury numb.
Heat will bring swelling out, therefore heat is not reccomended once an injury occurs. However, heat can be used to relax muscular pain.
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