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Black Militancy and The Black Power Movement in the 1960s
Transcript of Black Militancy and The Black Power Movement in the 1960s
The Black Panther Party or BPP originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was a black revolutionary socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982. The Black Panther Party achieved national and international notoriety through its involvement in the Black Power movement and U.S. politics of the 1960s and 1970. They were founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale on October 15, 1966; the organization initially set forth a doctrine calling primarily for the protection of black neighborhoods from police brutality equality, and fighting against the corruption that the government continued to develop. Many people believed that Black Panthers were mostly/only about fighting with guns, and being a very militant group of people fighting against racism, and American Corruption.Media made these people look like blacks who only believed in being physical to get their way, when in fact they were not like this. This foundation of people were also intelligent and believed that blacks needed an education more than any physical weapon to get them anywhere far in the world. They believed that knowledge was the best weapon, especially for blacks. They wanted to prove that they knew a lot about their history. The Black Panthers needed people in their group who knew just as much as them.
The leaders of the organization espoused socialist and Marxist doctrines; however, the Party's early black nationalist reputation attracted a diverse membership, The Black Panther Party's objectives and philosophy expanded and evolved rapidly during the party's existence, making ideological consensus within the party difficult to achieve, and causing some prominent members to openly disagree with the views of the leaders. Some of the common and most known Ideologies are black Nationalism, Anti-capitalism, Anti-fascism, Anti-imperialism, Marxism–Leninism, Maoism, Revolutionary socialism, Anti-racism, Anti-Zionism.By 1968, the party had expanded into many cities throughout the United States, among them, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Kansas City, Los Angles, Newark, New Orleans, New York City, Omaha, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle and Washington, D.C.. Peak membership was near 10,000 by 1969, and their newspaper, under the editorial leadership of Eldridge Cleaver, had a circulation of 250,000. The group created a Ten-Point Program,Within the Ten-Point program, "What We Want, What We Believe", the Black Panther Party expressed its economic and political grievances. by early 1969, and then suffered a series of contractions due to legal troubles, incarcerations, internal splits, expulsions and defections. Popular support for the Party declined further after reports appeared detailing the group's involvement in illegal activities such as drug dealing and extortion schemes directed against Oakland merchants. By 1972 most Panther activity centered on the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. Party contractions continued throughout the 1970s; by 1980 the Black Panther Party comprised just 27 members.
Ten Point Program
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Founded in 1960 and inspired by the Greensboro and Nashville sit-ins, independent student-led groups began direct-action protests against segregation in dozens of southern communities. The most common action of these groups was organizing sit-ins at racially segregated lunch counters to protest the pervasiveness of Jim Crow and other forms of racism. In addition to sitting in at lunch counters, the groups also organized and carried out protests at segregated White public libraries, public parks, public swimming pools, and movie theaters. At that time, all those facilities financed by taxes were closed to Blacks. The White response was often to close the facility,
--------rather than integrate it.
Black Militancy and The Black Power Movement in the 1960s
Black Panther Party
SNCC's first chairman was Marion Barry, who later became the mayor of Washington DC. Barry served as chairman for one year. The second chairman was Charles F. McDew, who served as the chairman from 1961 to 1963, when he was succeeded by John Lewis. Stokely Carmichael and H. "Rap" Brown were chairmen in the late '60s.SNCC's executive secretary, James Forman, played a major role in running the organizationIn 1961 SNCC began expanding its activities from direct-action protests against segregation into other forms of organizing, most notably voter registration. Under the leadership of Bob Moses, SNCC's first voter-registration project was in McComb, Mississippi, an effort suppressed with arrests and savage white violence, resulting in the murder of local activist Herbert Lee.
Many within the organization had grown skeptical about the tactics of nonviolence. After the Democratic convention of 1964, the group began to split into two factions one favoring a continuation of nonviolent, integration-oriented redress of grievances within the existing political system, and the other moving towards Black Power and revolutionary ideologies. These differences continued to grow during the Selma Voting Rights campaign.After the Watts riots in Los Angeles in 1965, some SNCC members sought to break their ties with the mainstream civil rights movement and the liberal organizations that supported it. They argued instead that blacks needed to build power of their own rather than seek accommodations from the power structure in place. Eventually, the leader of the militant branch, Stokely Carmichael, replaced John Lewis as head of SNCC in May 1966. As the mainstream civil-rights movement distanced itself from SNCC, SNCC expelled white staff and volunteers, and denounced the whites who had supported it in the past.After a long, contentious debate over the meaning of "Black Power," issues of black nationalism and black separatism, and the organization's strategic direction, white SNCC members were asked to leave the organization in December 1966. Carmichael first argued that blacks should be free to use violence in self-defense; later he advocated revolutionary violence to overthrow oppression. The Department of Defense stated in 1967:SNCC can no longer be considered a civil rights group. It has become a racist organization with black supremacy ideals and an expressed hatred for whites. It employs violent and militant measures which may be defined as extreme when compared with those of more moderate groups.