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Unit 18: Sport Injuries. Risk Factors and Preventative Measures

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Vicki Haigh

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Unit 18: Sport Injuries. Risk Factors and Preventative Measures

Unit 18: Sport Injuries
P1 - Describe extrinsic and intrinsic factors in relation to sports injuries.

P2 - Describe preventative measures that can be taken in order to prevent sports injuries occurring.

M1 - Explain how risk factors can be minimised by utilisation of preventative measures.
Task 1 (Recap)
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic factors?
Discuss in pairs you have 1 min
Extrinsic Definition
A risk or force from outside the body. These are external forces, such as from objects or other individuals making contact with someone.
Intrinsic Definition
A risk or force from within the body. These are internal forces, which are stresses from within the body
Extrinsic Factors

Incorrect technique
Environment factors
Clothing and Footwear
Safety Checks
Below are the 5 extrinsic factors in relation to sports injuries.
1. Coaching
Poor Coaching.



Ensuring adherence to roles & governing bodies.
2. Incorrect Technique
Lifting or handling equipment

Poor sports techniques
3. Environmental Factors
Effects of the weather on surfaces.

4. Clothing and footwear
Protective equipment & clothing is damaged or ill fitting/there is too much or too little equipment

The wrong footwear for the activity or playing surface is worn

The wrong equipment/clothing is worn
5. Safety Checks
Environment safety checks (remove dangerous objects, consider slippery/dangerous surfaces etc...)

Equipment safety checks (check equipment is in good working order and the correct size for the participants)

Misuse of equipment (tampering with or modifying equipment will make it less useful and often dangerous. Likewise, the participants must use the equipment as intended)

First aid Provision (qualified and experienced first aiders AND full first aid kits should be present at any session)

Safety Checklist (the coach/instructor would be advised to have and complete a safety checklist to ensure all activities, equipment and facilities are safe) - this is usually known as a Risk Assessment

Intrinsic Factors
Training Effects
Individual Variables
Postural Defects

2. Individual variables
Injury history - a history of injuries can leave you with anatomical abnormalities (or weaknesses) which could put you at risk of an injury recurring or new injuries developing as a result of compensation/overuse by another body part

Poor preparation / sleep - Being alert and refreshed is vital for being able to make good decisions and executing skill and technique appropriately. A tired or ill prepared athlete (e.g. over or under aroused) will often make poor decisions e.g. late/dangerous tackles, react slower to obstructions and will often execute skills in a way that can lead to injury.

Level of fitness - having the correct fitness levels to play your sport will reduce the risk of injury. You should also be mindful of having the correct levels of fitness for the level of sport you play.
1. Training Effects
3. Postural defects
Postural Defects - any abnormalities of the spine can become degenerative (wear things down) and inhibit/prevent sporting performance. In particular, an athlete who experiences overuse and/or places excessive strain on the body will find that injuries will worsen if they have a postural defect.
Preventative Measures
1. Role of the coach
2. Equipment and the environment

1. Role of the Coach

Up to date knowledge of the sport/performer, including being aware of their strengths, areas for improvement and capabilities.

Have up to date and relevant qualifications (e.g. level 2 coaching, first aid, scrum factory etc...)

Adapt coach style to a performers ability/age/gender & fitness level

Communication is vital - make it clear, concise and always stress the health and safety considerations

Ensure players adhere to the rules and regulations

Ensure sufficient first aid is in place and a full risk assessment is in place and monitored on an ongoing basis

2. Equipment and Environment

Checking equipment for faults or issues over appropriateness for activity

Protective equipment should always be worn. Developments in technology have allowed for the creation of a wide range of materials, clothing and equipment to be produced. In all sports there will be specific equipment that should be worn, and there will be many options available for you to buy - this will help you to buy equipment / clothing that fits you perfectly and allows you to play freely but safely

Risk assessments of the environment and activities should be completed and appropriate control measures considered and enforced

The environment and equipment appropriately. The user should not make any modifications to the equipment/environment and should avoid using anything that is damaged / shows a weakness
Anatomical differences and abnormalities (such as muscle imbalance) can put undue stresses on the body and joints, leading to injury

Poor physical preparation - e.g. not taking part in a thorough warm-up can lead to injury

Poor mental preparation can also lead to injury through loss of focus in the game.

Overuse - Injuries can also occur as a result of using the body too much, rest periods are essential for allowing the body to recover.
Scoliosis (a lateral/sideways bending of the spine) can lead to muscle imbalance and a wearing of one side of the body over another
Kyphosis (an excessive arching of the upper part of the spine) can cause technical issues in the excecution of sporting movement leading to soft and hard tissue damage
Lordosis (an excessive inward curve at the lower part of the spine) will place particular stress on the lower appendages, namely the pelvic area and associated joints.
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