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Stacy Bennett

on 5 March 2013

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Native American Culture -"American Indians in North Carolina." Session 3: Government and Politics. NC Museum of History, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/ai/Session3.htm>.
-"American Indian Poems and Prayers." Black Hawk Productions. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://www.blackhawkproductions.com/poetrynative.htm>.
-"Cherokee History." Cherokee History. Powersource, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://www.powersource.com/nation/dates.html>.
-"Dreamcatcher." Socialphy. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013
-"Earth Lessons." First People. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.firstpeople.us/html/Earth-Lessons.html>.
-Ellis-Christensen, Tricia, and O. Wallace. "What Is the Trail of Tears." WiseGeek. Conjecture, 19 Feb. 2013. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-trail-of-tears.htm>.
-"Lumbee Timeline." LumbeeTribe. Lumbee Tribe, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://www.lumbeetribe.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=123&Itemid=34>.
-Mooney, James W. "Short Stories: Native American." Helium. N.p., 14 May 2007. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.
-"Native American Legends." Cherokee Legend. First People of America, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/TwoWolves-Cherokee.html>.
-Newman, Robert. "Ceremony (Contemporary American Fiction Series) [Paperback]." Amazon. N.p., n.d. Web.
-"The Good Red Road." Turquoise Butterfly Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://www.angelfire.com/biz2/turquoisebutterfly/roadintro.html>.
-Thibedeau, Shanice. "Dreamcatcher Poem." Dreamcatcher Poem. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.shanice2004.net/dreamcatcherpoem.jpg.html>
-Tinda, Marge. "Softly Speak The Spirits." American Native Indian Poems. N.p., 1999. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. <http://marge.netpoets.net/softly_speak_the_spirits.htm>.
-"PowWow: Spirituality." PowWow: Spirituality. Wacipi Powwow, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ktca.org/powwow/comfamspirit/spirituality.html>.
-Walsh, S. Kirk. "Time-Traveling Lessons for a Teenager on the Verge." The New York Times. The New York Times Co., 25 Apr. 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. For many generations, Native Americans have been using dream catchers. These dream catchers are supposed to catch all the dreams, and only good ones are able to slip through. Softly Speak The Spirits
By Marge Tindal In October of 1938, the Trail of Tears began for the Cherokee. The Trail of Tears was a relocation from Georgia to Oklahoma made by the US Government. There were many deaths and about 20% of the Cherokee Nation died during or shortly after the relocation due to diseases. Eventually they recovered from their losses, and now they are one of the largest Native American groups in modern day America. Fictional Text Ceremony by Leslie Marmon Silko represents the Native American culture's view on money in particular. The main character Tayo is a half white-half Laguna Indian man who is terrorized by the hardships of war present in his time and he actually manages to stay alive as a prisoner of the Japanese during World War II. Afterward, Tayo has to undergo a healing process and begins to feel as though the materialism and violence of western civilization is a threat to everyone. This represents the connection that Native Americans have with nature. Throughout history, Native Americans have seemed to have a more pure outlook on the world when compared to others such as the settlers of the New World. Money is not what Native Americans live for. Native American culture envisions spiritual stability and unification as a people in peace. Tribal History and Culture Short Stories Past Culture Dream Catcher By Shanice Thibedeau Dream Catcher, Dream Catcher, catch me a dream
Follow me into the mystical stream
Where everything's wonderful and not what it seems
But magically, mystically, wonderfully free You can sail through the clouds and over the moon
Under the sea and come out in your room
For you never go far with the Dream Catcher's web
It all will take place inside your head Where fantasy and reality merge into one
And everyone's loved and no one's undone
For you can fly across fields and soar through the air
You can do just about anything with nary a care In the Dream Catcher's web you'll always be safe
For she loves you and keeps you tucked in your space
All through the night till morning is near
Then she whispers…"I love you" into your ear She helps you slide safely back into your bed
Then covers you up and retires to her web She gently leans over and watches you sleep
While she hangs up your bad dreams for the sun's early heat
The good dreams stay nestled safe in her web
For another night's dreaming that yearns to be fed She'll pull out a favorite and you'll dream it again
As she helps you understand the message within There are Dream Catchers everywhere watching over us all
Just waiting to help us prevent a hard fall
So if you are happy with the dreams that you dream
Be sure that you bless
Each…Dream Catching String. Gently they come to me,
the spirits of days long ago.
Softly they speak of our heritage
so that others may know.

Be proud of who you are
they say without defeat.
Share the past with others,
so history will not repeat. I listen and I heed
the words they bid me say.
I share the history of the Cherokee
with those who care today.

If you do not care to hear me,
please turn and go elsewhere.
For you will not be missed
if you do not care ... to care. We did not break the promises,
made by men of the past...
but we lived the carnage
that came to pass.

Forever from the spirits of my people,
who only wanted peace and love,
the words will flow like rivers
sent from God above. We are a loving people,
we did not make the fight.
It was fostered upon us
on that cold October night.

October, 1838...
the Trail Of Tears was begun.
March 26, 1939 arrived
before the Trail Of Tears was done. Thousands gathered and herded
through conditions of cold and winds that did blow.
More than four thousand did not make it.
Buried in the blood-stained snow.

Many moons have passed
since the Trail Of Tears was trod.
We now re-visit the memories
through the help of God. God, himself, stood watch,
as the injustice was being run
And He stands watch now
to see justice finally done.

Return the land to the ancestors
of the mighty Cherokee...
The land still belongs
to the others and to me. All that are Native American Indian
have a right to the land loved so,
The lands that were taken forcibly
in the history of long ago.

Peace to all who love.
Peace to all who care.
Peace to all Native American Indians
living everywhere. And peace and love to those
who know how our people suffered pain.
Thanks to all who are willing
to help us to regain.

The Great Spirits have spoken.
Give us now the wisdom to listen.
The tribal counsels will meet
and decide which paths to take. Poetry FLIGHT
Sherman Alexie FLIGHT by Sherman Alexie is a novel about a teenage boy known as Zits who is half Indian. He is extremely self conscious and his life in general is depressing and full of hardships. His Indian father left him shortly after he was born and his mother died of breast cancer when he was only six. He later ends up returning to a juvenile jail located in Seattle where he takes a life-changing journey back in time. He actually ends up living life from the point of view of several different Indians of the past, including his own father. After undergoing several unique experiences, his views on war, being a hero, and life in general change. Toward the end of the book, Zits gives a statement in regard to others he is surrounded by. He says, “Maybe we’re all lonely. Maybe some of them also hurtle through time and see war, war, war. Maybe we’re all in this together.”

To walk the Red Road
is to know sacrifice, suffering.
It is to understand humility.
It is the ability to stand naked before God
in all things for your wrong doings,
for your lack of strength,
for your uncompassionate way,
for your arrogance - because to walk
the Red Road, you always know
you can do better. And you know,
when you do good things,
it is through the Creator, and you are grateful.

To walk the Red Road
is to know you stand on equal ground
with all living things. It is to know that
because you were born human,
it gives you superiority over nothing.
It is to know that every creation carries a Spirit,
and the river knows more than you do,
the mountains know more than you do,
the stone people know more than you do,
the trees know more than you do,
the wind is wiser than you are,
and animal people carry wisdom.
You can learn from every one of them,
because they have something you don’t:
They are void of evil thoughts.
They wish vengeance on no one, they seek Justice.

To Walk the Red Road,
you have less fear of being wrong,
because you know that life is a journey,
a continuous circle, a sacred hoop.
Mistakes will be made,
and mistakes can be corrected
if you will be humble,
for if you cannot be humble,
you will never know
when you have made a mistake.

If you walk the Red Road,
you know that every sorrow
leads to a better understanding,
every horror cannot be explained,
but can offer growth.

To Walk the Red Road
is to look for beauty in all things.

To Walk the Red Road
is to know you will one day
cross to the Spirit World,
and you will not be afraid… Poetry Representing Past Culture Poetry Representing Present Day ~TO WALK THE RED ROAD~ Unknown Poet Long road winding began in the stars,
spilled onto the mountain tops,
was carried in the snow to the streams,
to the rivers, to the ocean…
It covers Canada, Alaska, America,
Mexico to Guatemala,
and keeps winding around the indigenous. To Walk the Red Road,
you have God given rights,
you have the right to pray,
you have the right to dance,
you have the right to think,
you have the right to protect,
you have the right to know Mother,
you have the right to dream,
you have the right to vision,
you have the right to teach,
you have the right to learn,
you have a right to grieve,
you have a right to happiness,
you have the right to fix the wrongs,
you have the right to truth,
you have a right to the Spirit World. The Country's Past and the Book's Impact on the Present This book is certainly representative of the country's past due to the fact that its plot involves a boy traveling back in time. The teen discovers secrets hidden in the past that help him understand war and the true meaning of life. FLIGHT impacts the present by showing readers that becoming aware of the good but also the evils in the world is important. After traveling back in time, the main character is forever changed. Zits goes from feeling completely alone in the world to feeling unified with everyone in one way or another. Sherman Alexie The Longer Text This stanza shows that the poem relates to present-day places such as Canada, Alaska, America, Mexico, and Guatemala. What is the Red Road? This stanza relates to all the rights that people of the world have today. In the past, not as many people were so lucky to have the benefits of these rights. This shows the spirit and thankfulness Native Americans have had throughout history that still lives on in the hearts of descended generations today. This relates to the evil seen all over the world today. Evil is evident through war, crimes, terrorism, and hatred displayed by people every day. To Walk the Red Road is to know your Ancestors,to call to them for assistance…It is to know that there is good medicine,and there is bad medicine…It is to know that Evil exists,but is cowardly as it is often in disguise.It is to know there are evil spirits who are in constant watch for a way to gain strength for themselves at the expense of you. The phrase "the Red Road" is used by Native Americans to show one who is walking the road of balance, living their life right, and following the rules of the Creator. This is a great example of how Native Americans treasure unity and peace. Lumbee Powwow Cherokee Powwow Powwows are very significant for every Native American Tribe. Powwows can be spiritual, can be a form of personal expression, cultural identity, and physical enjoyment or worship. Powwows can also show how everyone and everything is realated, that everything has a soul. Lumbee and Cherokee Timelines http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/lumbee-culture Works Cited By: Stacy Bennett, Billie Jean Bailey, and Kerry McMillan The Red Road is a circle of people standing hand in hand, people in this world, people between people in the Spirit world.star people, animal people, stone people, river people, tree people…The Sacred Hoop. This shows how Native Americans value unity and peace.
Walk in mountain forests
Where your false pride has no value

Listen well to all your Earth Teachers
For they care not about your ego

Dare to touch Earth Mother with your heart
That you might hear echoes of ancient wisdom

Allow Wind Spirits to caress your face
And sense freedom not born of material possessions

Drink purity from water veins of our Earth Mother
To drown the arrogance creating your thirst for power

Make time to observe the ant
For she will instruct you in the ways of true humility

Search out the glistening grain of sand
If you wish to see natural beauty

Contemplate the forming of rounded river stones
That you might conquer change

Observe the deer among dewy grasses
And they will teach you the giveaway

Focus on the mighty bear
Should you dare to look within yourself

Listen to the Stellers Jay
For her squawking may be your echo

Study the ways of wolf
Where family value exceeds the self

Observe the spider carefully
What you do to the web of life, you do to yourself

View stars on a moonless night
To know there is light in the darkest of times

Pursue an eye for an eye
And you may be blinded first

Watch the butterfly as she dances in flight
That your own actions may be as beautiful

Open your ears that you might hear beyond yourself
Or has your own voice made you deaf?

Now, gaze into still waters
And observe what you really reflect Watch the snake as he sheds his skin
That you can learn to let go of hurtful things Earth Lessons Unknown Poet This poem relates to the present because it tells of valuable life lessons that are beneficial to everyone. It lists lessons that were important in the past that are still meaningful today. Look beyond the end of your nose
And see a world that can live without you "A Good Day's Work" is a short story written by James Wfe Mooney. The main character is known as Flaming Eagle and he ventures out into the world to become one with nature and complete work that needs to be done. While on his journey through mountains, he meets two snakes that beg Flaming Eagle to carry them through a blizzard that has made them almost freeze to death. Flaming Eagle generously picks them up and walks with them close to his body to keep them warm. After becoming warm again, the snakes bite Flaming Eagle and leave him behind to die. While in the process of dying, Flaming Eagle is healed by the elements of the earth he has respected and he ends up living. The story shows that one should be careful when determining who is trustworthy and who is not. It also shows that good actions are rewarded by nature and God. Present Culture Cherokee Tale of Two Wolves
One evening an old Cherokee Indian told his grandson about a battle that goes on inside people. He said, ‘My son, the battle is between two ‘wolves’ inside us all.One is Evil. It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego.
The other is good. It is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith.'
The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather: ‘Which wolf wins?’
The old Cherokee simply replied, ‘The one you feed.’
2nd Adaptation
An old Grandfather said to his grandson, who came to him with anger at a friend who had done him an injustice, "Let me tell you a story.
I too, at times, have felt a great hate for those that have taken so much, with no sorrow for what they do.
But hate wears you down, and does not hurt your enemy. It is like taking poison and wishing your enemy would die. I have struggled with these feelings many times." He continued, "It is as if there are two wolves inside me. One is good and does no harm. He lives in harmony with all around him, and does not take offense when no offense was intended. He will only fight when it is right to do so, and in the right way.
But the other wolf, ah! He is full of anger. The littlest thing will set him into a fit of temper. He fights everyone, all the time, for no reason. He cannot think because his anger and hate are so great. It is helpless anger,for his anger will change nothing.
Sometimes, it is hard to live with these two wolves inside me, for both of them try to dominate my spirit."
The boy looked intently into his Grandfather's eyes and asked, "Which one wins, Grandfather?"
The Grandfather smiled and quietly said, "The one I feed." 1540 - The Spanish explorer, Hernando De Soto and his party are the first whites seen by the Cherokees.
1629 - The first traders from the English settlements began trading among the Cherokees.

1721 - The Cherokee Treaty with the Governor of the Carolinas is thought to be the first consession of land.

1785 - Treaty of Hopewell is the first treaty between the U.S. and the Cherokees.

1791 - Treaty of Holston signed. Includes a call for the U.S. to advance civilization of the Cherokees by giving them farm tools and technical advice.

1802 - Jefferson signs Goergia Compact.

1817 - Treaty makes exchange for land in Arkansas. Old settlers begin voluntary migration and establish a government there. In 1828, they are forced to move into Indian territory.

1821 - Sequoyah's Cherokee Syllabary completed, quickly leads to almost total literacy among the Cherokees.

1822 - Cherokee's Supreme Court established.

1824 - First written law of Western Cherokees.

1825 - New Echota, GA authorized as Cherokee capital.

1827 - Modern Cherokee Nation begins with Cherokee Constitution established by a convention; John Ross elected chief.

1828 - Cherokee Phoenix published in English and Cherokee; Andrew Jackson elected President. Gold discovered in Georgia.

1828-1830 - Georgia Legislature abolishes tribal government and expands authority over Cherokee country.

1832 - US Supreme Court decision Worcester vs Georgia establishes tribal sovereignty, protects Cherokees from Georgia laws. Jackson won't enforce decision and Georgia holds lottery for Cherokee lands.

1835 - Treaty Party signs Treaty of New Echota, giving up title to all Cherokee lands in southeast in exchange for land in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma.).

1838-1839 - Trails of Tears. US Government's forced removal of 17,000 Cherokees, in defiance of Supreme Court decision. More than 4,000 die from exposure and disease along the way.

1839 - Assassination of Treaty Party leaders, Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot for breaking pact not to sign Treaty of New Echota. Factionalism continues until 1846. New constitution ratified at convention uniting Cherokees arriving from the east with those in the west.

1844 Cherokee Supreme Court building opens; Cherokee Advocate becomes the first newspaper in Indian territory.

1851 - Cherokee male and female seminaries open. Female seminary is the first secondary school for girls west of the Mississippi.

1859 - Original Keetoowah Society organized to maintain traditions and fight slavery.

1860 - Tension mounts between Union Cherokees and Confederate Cherokees. Civil War begins.

1861 - Treaty signed at Park Hill between Cherokee Nation and the Confederate government. Cherokee Nation torn by border warfare throughout the Civil War.

1865-1866 - Cherokee must negotiate peace with the US Government. New treaty limits tribal land rights, eliminates possibility of Cherokee State and is prelude to Dawes Commission. John Ross dies.

1887 - General Allotment Act passed; requires individual ownership of lands once held in common by Indian tribes.

1889 - Unassigned lands in Indian Territory opened by white settlers known as "boomers."

1890 - Oklahoma Territory organized out of western half of Indian Territory.

1893 - Cherokee Outlet opened for white settlers.Dawes Commission arrives.

1898 - Curtis Act passed abolishing tribal courts.

1903 - W.C. Rogers becomes last elected chief for 69 years.

1905 - Land allotment begins after official roll taken of Cherokees.

1907 - Oklahoma statehood combines Indian and Oklahoma Territories and dissolves tribal government.

1917 - William C. Rogers, the last Cherokee Chief, dies.

1934 - Indian Reorganization Act established a landbase for tribes and legal structure for self government.

1948 - Chief J.B.Milam calls Cherokee Convention; beginning of model tribal government of the Cherokee Nation.

1949 - W.W. Bill Keeler appointed chief by President Harry Truman.

1957 - First Cherokee National Holiday.

1961 - Cherokees awarded 15 million dollars by the US Claims Commission for Cherokee Outlet Lands.

1963 - Cherokee National Historical Society founded. CNHS opens Ancient Village, 1967; Trail of Tears Drama, 1969, and museum, 1975.

1967 - Cherokee Foundation formed to purchase land on which the tribal complex now sits.

1970 - U.S. Supreme Court ruling confirms Cherokee Nation ownership of bed and banks of 96 mile segment of Arkansas Riverbed.

1971 - W.W.Keeler becomes first elected principal chief since statehood.

1975 - Ross O. Swimmer elected to first of three terms as principal chief. First Cherokee Tribal Council elected Congress passes Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act.

1976 - Cherokee voters ratify new Constitution outlining tribal government.

1979 - Tribal offices moved into modern new complex South of Tahlequah.

1984 - First joint council meeting in 146 years between Eastern Band of Cherokees and Cherokee Nation held at Red Clay, TN. Council meetings now held bi-annually.

1987 - Wilma Mankiller makes history and draws international attention to tribe as first woman elected chief; Cherokee voters pass constitution amendment to elect council by districts in 1991.

1988 - Cherokee Nation joins Eastern Band in Cherokee, NC to commemorate beginning of The Trail of Tears.

1989 - The Cherokee Nation observes 150th anniversary of arrival in Indian Territory. "A New Beginning".

1990 - Chief Mankiller signs the historic self-governance agreement, making the Cherokee Nation one of six tribes to participate in the self-determination project. The project, which ran for three years beginning Oct.1 1990, authorized the tribe to assume tribal responsiblity for BIA funds which were formerly being spent on the tribe's behalf at the agency, area and central office levels.

1991 - In the July tribal election the first council to be elected by districts since statehood and Wilma Mankiller won second elected term as principal chief with a landslide 82% of the votes cast.

1995 - Joe Byrd and Garland Eagle elected principal chief and deputy chief which marks the first time in nearly 200 years that full blood bilingual leaders occupy the top positions of the Cherokee Nation. http://www.powersource.com/nation/dates.html
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