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Motivation in Learning and Teaching
Transcript of Motivation in Learning and Teaching
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Woolfolk, A.E., Winne, P.H., Perry, N.E., 2012. Educational Psychology. 3rd Custom Ed. for OISE/U of T. Chapter 11. What is motivation? Motivation to Learn: In School Needs Needs Theory According to psychologists it is, "an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behaviour" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 337). IM is "motivation associated with activities that are their own reward " (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 378) whereas EM is "motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 378). One can determine which one is which based on the cause of one's behaviour. They have also classified 5 approaches or views of motivation: behavioural, humanistic, cognitive, social and sociocultural all of which have a source of motivation, important influences and key theorists. Here are the important influences of each. Behavioural deals with "reinforcers, rewards, incentives and punishers" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 381). Humanistic with "needs for self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and self-determination" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 381) . Cognitive with "beliefs, attributions for success and failure and expectations" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 381). Social cognitive with "goals, expectations, intentions and self efficacy" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 381). Finally, sociocultural with "engaged participation in learning communities and maintaining identity through participation in activities of group" (Woolfolk, Winne & Perry, 2012, p. 381). In fact, psychologists have been interested in the concept of motivation as it greatly affects our decisions in life. In educational psychology, they have made 2 distinctions: intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM). Student Interest & Curiosity How will you capture and maintain your students' interest in learning? To explore this question, let's first look at the two kinds of interests:
1. Personal interests
2. Situational interests Personal interests are individual interests in certain subjects or activities. For example, personal interests can include an enjoyment of sports, music or technology. Situational interests are short-lived aspects of an activity or materials that capture a student's attention. For example, relating a math problem to a real world application may create a situational interest. It is important for teachers to connect
academic content to personal and situational
interests wherever possible - greater interest is
connected to higher achievement in learning.
But how? Here are some ideas to create student interest in learning. Reflect on how you might you use these ideas in your classroom. Before we start, picture yourself as a teacher in a classroom with students at various learning levels and from diverse backgrounds.
How will you ensure that all students are motivated to learn?
What strategies will you use to capture and maintain their interest? Consider this scenario throughout this presentation. Learn about your students' interests and incorporate them in your lessons and assignments.
Help students understand concepts using examples that connect to their own lives and interests.
Find ways to relate material to real-life issues and applications.
Help students experience success - interest increases when students feel competent! As teachers, we are concerned about achievement emotions - these are emotions related to achievement in school.
Anxiety is a general feeling of uneasiness and tension.
Anxiety can interfere with a student's ability to focus, learn and achieve. Student Emotions and Anxiety Anxiety impacts students differently. Talk to the student if you suspect anxiety to find out the cause.
Remove uncertainty and unnecessary pressure.
Help anxious students to participate in class discussions by breaking questions down.
Allow students the option of presenting in front of smaller groups rather than in front of the class.
Make sure all students have ample opportunities to be successful. How can you help an anxious student? How do student emotions relate to motivation and learning? - Abraham Maslow
'A theory of human motivation' (1943)
Motivation and Personality (1956) Self-determination Theory
(Deci and Ryan) Deci and Ryan - a framework for the study of human motivation and personality
- concerned with internal motivation (from within)
- how social and cultural factors facilitate or undermine people’s sense of volition, initiative, well-being and performance 3 Tenets:
Relatedness Applications Education, organizations, sport and physical activity, religion, health and medicine, parenting, virtual environments and media, close relationships, and psychotherapy - autonomy-supported environments
-supports for relatedness and competence - goal structures and ways of communicating How? Why people do what they do?
What are the costs and benefits? What do students need to be successful in school?
What do teachers need to ensure students learn?
What do parents need to do for their children? Needs What do we need, want, desire?
Sleep/rest, food/energy, feeling secure/safe, shelter and clothing, health/fitness, support from family and friends, self-confidence and esteem, freedom to express themselves and their interests, and many more... Students need... Outcomes? Process? Purpose? Long term? Personal? Collective? Immediate? Goals? Specifically... SDT Competence Autonomy Relatedness Independence Freedom Self-governance Free-will Knowledge Skills Qualifications Sufficiency Connections Relationships Association Belonging What this all means? Differentiated instruction (DI) and 'special' education! - Meeting students individual needs
- Offering alternatives
- Supporting strengths AND weaknesses Closing Remarks and Reflection Motivation to learn is defined as "a student tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to derive the intended academic benefits from them" - Brophy 1988 Not all students come to class with the motivation to learn. As teachers we have three major jobs.
1. Get students productively involved with the work of the class. Basically catch their interest to motivate them.
2. Develop in our students enduring individual interests and instill motivation so they will be able to educate themselves for the rest of their lives.
3. Cognitively engage our students. We want our students to leave the class deeply thinking of what was taught.
(Blumenfeld, Puro, Mergendoller. 1992) A central question in this chapter is "How do we motivate unmotivated students?"
Carol Ames has identified 6 areas in which teachers make decisions that influence students ability to learn.
The acronym "Target" is used to organize the 6 areas of teacher influence. TASK- The value of a task is assessed by its importance, usefulness, and the cost in terms of effort and time to achieve it. Expectation of success is assessed by a student's perception of the difficulty of a task. Authenticity refers to how much a task relates to the lives of the students. The more it does, the more it can build on students' interests and goals, and the more meaningful and motivating it becomes. AUTONOMY- Students take more pride in their work when they have a say in what assignment they are doing. Autonomy strengthens self-efficacy and self-determination. Where possible, teachers can enhance autonomy by offering students choices about assignments (multiple attempts of success) and by encouraging them to take initiative about their own learning. RECOGNITION- Teachers can support students' motivation by recognizing their achievements appropriately. It is not effective if praise is very general and lacking in detailed reasons for the praise, if praise is for qualities which a student cannot influence or if praise is offered so widely that it loses meaning. Many of these paradoxical effects are described by self-determination and self-efficacy theory. GROUPING- Motivation is affected by how students are grouped together for their work. There are several different ways to group students but the three main types are: cooperative, competitive, and individualistic (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). In cooperative learning, a set of students work together to achieve a common goal. In competitive learning, students work individually, and their grades reflect comparisons among the class. In individualistic learning, students work by themselves, but their grades are unrelated to the performance of classmates. Research that compares these three forms of grouping tends to favor cooperative learning. EVALUATION- A focus on competitive grouping will have a large effect on evaluation. It can distract students from thinking about the material to be learned, and to focus instead on how they will be graded. A focus on cooperative learning, on the other hand, can have double-edged effects: students are encouraged to help their group mates, but may also be tempted to rely excessively on others' efforts or alternatively to ignore each other's contributions and overspecialize their own contributions. Some compromise between cooperative and individualistic structures seems to create optimal motivation for learning (Slavin, 1995). TIME- Students learn at their own pace. Accommodating the differences can be challenging, but also important for maximizing students' motivation. A degree of flexibility is usually possible. Now that we have defined motivation, offered various approaches to explain it, explored theories around it and underlined practical implications, will your teaching practice change in any way?