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Scaffolding (in the educational setting)
Transcript of Scaffolding (in the educational setting)
Scaffolding is an instructional
technique, associated with
the zone of proximal development,
in which a teacher provides
individualized support by incrementally improving a learner’s ability
to build on prior knowledge.
Scaffolding can be used in
a variety of content areas
and across age
and grade levels.
is the gap between what a learner has already mastered (the actual level of development) and what he or she can achieve when provided with educational support (potential development).
In a classroom setting, the teacher is responsible for structuring interactions and developing instruction in small steps based on tasks the learner is already capable of performing independently.
According to John Zeuli, “Instruction should emphasize connections to what the learner already knows in other familiar, everyday contexts.”
Scaffolding is used in a very wide range of situations.
MOTHER WHO TEACH TODDLER HOW TO LIVE IN AND ENJOY THEIR WORLD USE THIS APPROACH NATURALLY.
TEACHERS, FROM PRE-K TO ADULT EDUCATION APPRECIATE THE NECESSITY AND INCREASED LEARNING AFFORDED BY THE USE OF THESE TECHNIQUES.
BUSINESS TRAINING SCENARIOS AND ATHLETIC TEAMS, ALSO USE THESE METHODS TO ASSURE THE SUCCESS OF THEIR EMPLOYEES AND/OR MEMBERS.
IN THE CLASSROOM
THE INSTRUCTOR OR TEACHER MUST GUIDE LEARNERS THROUGH VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION AND MODEL BEHAVIORS TO SHOW YOUNG LEARNERS HOW TO LINK OLD INFORMATION OR FAMILIAR SITUATION FROM THE PAST WITH NEW KNOWLEDGE.
IT’S CLOSELY RELATED WITH A ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT, SO TEACHERS OR PARENTS CAN FACILITATE THIS ADVANCEMENT BY PROVIDING ACTIVITIES AND TASKS THAT:
• MOTIVATE OR ENLIST THE CHILD’S INTEREST RELATED TO THE TASK
• SIMPLIFY THE TASK TO MAKE IT MORE MANAGEABLE AND ACHIEVABLE FOR A CHILD
• PROVIDE SOME DIRECTION IN ORDER TO HELP THE CHILD FOCUS ON ACHIEVING THE GOAL
• CLEARLY INDICATE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CHILD’S WORK AND THE STANDARD OR DESIRED SOLUTION
• REDUCE FRUSTRATION AND RISK
• MODEL AND CLEARLY DEFINE THE EXPECTATIONS OF THE ACTIVITY TO BE PERFORMED
In the educational setting, scaffolds may include models, cues, prompts, hints, partial solutions, think-aloud modeling, and direct instruction.
• POSSIBLE EARLY IDENTIFIER OF GIFTEDNESS
• PROVIDES INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION
• GREATER ASSURANCE OF THE LEARNER ACQUIRING THE DESIRED SKILL, KNOWLEDGE OR ABILITY
• DELIVERS EFFICIENCY – SINCE THE WORK IS STRUCTURED, FOCUSED, AND GLITCHES HAVE BEEN REDUCED OR ELIMINATED PRIOR TO INITIATION, TIME ON TASK IS INCREASED AND EFFICIENCY IN COMPLETING THE ACTIVITY IS INCREASED.
• CREATES MOMENTUM – THROUGH THE STRUCTURE PROVIDED BY SCAFFOLDING, STUDENTS SPEND LESS TIME SEARCHING AND MORE TIME ON LEARNING AND DISCOVERING RESULTING IN QUICKER LEARNING
• MINIMIZES THE LEVEL OF FRUSTRATION FOR THE LEARNER
• ENGAGES THE LEARNER & MOTIVATES THE LEARNER TO LEARN
VERY TIME CONSUMING (MOSTLY FOR TEACHERS)
FULL BENEFITS NOT SEEN UNLESS THE INSTRUCTORS ARE PROPERLY TRAINED
REQUIRES THE TEACHER TO GIVE UP CONTROL AS FADING OCCURS
LACK OF SPECIFIC EXAMPLES AND TIPS IN TEACHER’S EDITIONS OF TEXTBOOKS
Another major benefit of scaffolding is that it supports the ten principles of effective teaching highlighted in Ellis, Worthington and Larkin’s (n.d.) Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators.
Students learn more when they are engaged actively during an instructional task.
High and moderate success rates are correlated positively with student learning outcomes, and low success rates are correlated negatively with student learning outcomes.
Increased opportunity to learn content is correlated positively with increased student achievement. Therefore, the more content covered, the greater the potential for student learning.
Students achieve more in classes in which they spend much of their time being directly taught or supervised by their teacher.
The critical forms of knowledge associated with strategic learning are (a) declarative knowledge, (b) procedural knowledge, and (c) conditional knowledge. Each of these must be addressed if students are to become independent, self-regulated learners.
Learning is increased when teaching is presented in a manner that assists students in organizing, storing, and retrieving knowledge.
Students can become more independent, self-regulated learners through strategic instruction.
Students can become independent, self-regulated learners through instruction that is explicit.
By teaching sameness both within and across subjects, teachers promote the ability of students to access potentially relevant knowledge in novel problem-solving situations.
Students can become independent, self-regulated learners through instruction that is deliberately and carefully scaffolded.
A.SMARUJ & A.SZCZERBA