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History of Music

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Charity Grindstaff

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of History of Music

History of Music
By: Charity Grindstaff
Middle Ages
The time period of the Middle Ages is
450-1450 A.D.

Musicians were supported by chief institutions, ex: Church, City & States.
Musicians had several opportunities for employment in the music industry.
Secular songs and dances in the Middle Ages were sung in monophonically.
Gregorian Chant
Gregorian Chant is church music sung "a cappella" which means without musical instruments.
Secular Music
Sacred Music
Music for a Knight #14
Important Elements
Most medieval music was vocal.
Most important musicians were priests.
Texture of The Gregorian Chant was monophonic.
Definition of monophonic: A single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.
The time period of Renaissance is 1450-1600.
An Overview of the Renaissance Music
The Renaissance period is sometimes called the golden age of a capella.

There are two forms of sacred Renaissance music they are mass and motet.

Motet is a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass.
Continuation of the Overview on Renaissance Music

Secular music was written for groups of solo voices and solo voice with instrumental accompaniment.

Secular music contained more rapid changes of mood than sacred music.

Favorite Mass of Renaissance
Thomas Tallis- Mass for Four Voices
Mass for Pope Marcellus:
Agnus Dei L by Giovanni
Images of Music Composers
Josquin Desprez
Pope Marcellus
Giovanni Pierluigui
da Palestrina
Baroque Period
The Baroque Period was between the times of 1600-1750s'.
Baroque means: exaggerated,abnormal or even bizarre. It was an era of absolute monarchy.
Monody was a new style which originated in vocal music around the year of 1600.
10 Favorite Baroque Composers
Monody was first cultivated by a group of Florentine writers, artists, and musicians known as the Camerata which derived from the Italian word "salon".
Bach (1685-1750)
Johann Bach was known for writing music and playing instruments.
He was one of the greatest composers of Baroque style of music. He also served as directer of the collegium musicum, a group of university students and musicians that gave regular concerts.
Continuation of Bach
He wrote Cantatas which was an integral part of the church service, related along with the sermon and prayers that followed it, to the Gospel reading for the day.

He wrote his cantata Wachet auf (Sleepers, Awake) in 1731, for the end of the church.
The Best of Bach
The Well-Tempered Clavier
The time periods of Handel were in the 1700s'.

Bach wrote many organ

He was best known for several orchestral suites: Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
George Frideric Handel's - Water Music
Handel - Music for the Royal Fireworks
Continuation of Handel
In the Baroque era, instruments were featured in large scale genres including the suite.(A collection of dances)
The dances included the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.(Baroque suite)

He was the son of a violinist, he grew up in his native Venice.
For the greatest part of his career he was maestro de'or music master at the most important of the four music schools.
Vivaldi's Best-known Work
Spring: The Four Seasons, a group of four solo violin concertos.
The Four Seasons, is a well-known set of solo
violin concertos representing program music.
Program Music: is an instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations.

Four Seasons
Classical Period
Times were between 1750-1825.
Classical Music
Classical Music is characterized by the masters so called Viennese School Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven, and successor Franz Schubert.
There are cycles as well in classical music known as the first, second, third, and fourth movement.

Classical music is characterized by a singable, lyrical melody; diatonic harmony; regular rhythms and meters; homophonic texture; and frequent use of folk elements.
Joseph Haydn(1732-1809)
He was one of the most prolific composers of the classical period.

He made his living by teaching and accompanying.
People adored his beautiful voice.
He wrote string Quartets.
By the time he reached middle age his music brought him fame.
Wolfgang Amadeus
He was an composer violinist.
He was an extraordinarily gifted child in the history of music, he started composing before he was five.

He had three comic operas.
Mozart's Comic Operas
The Marriage of Figaro
Don Giovanni
Cosi fan tutte
Beethoven (1770-1827)
Beethoven was born into a troubled family in Bonn, Germany
He is the supreme architect in music.

Tragic struck Beethoven in his early age, he began to lose his hearing.

He wrote nine symphonies and he was very known for them.
A Continuation of Beethoven
Beethoven Symphony No. 5
No. 9
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
He was born outside Vienna, where he served as one of the famous
Vienna Choir Boys.

His music marks the the confluence
of Classical and Romantic Era.

He wrote a wonderful masterpiece call the ElfKing.

His life was a romantic symbol of the artist's fate.
Schubert's Life and Music
The Best of Franz Schubert
The Elfking was a
milestone in the history
of Romanticism.

Classical Era
Two types of Italian opera: Opera buffa; (comic opera) and opera seria (serious opera)

The Mass, Requiem Mass, and oratorio were the dominant choral forms of the Classical era.

Classical Period
Through opera it has become the most branched of musical entertainment the has reached the public.
Classical Orchestra

The heart of the Classical orchestra was the strings assisted by woodwinds, brass, and percussion.

Romantic Era

The time periods were between the late 1800s' and early 1900s'.
Types of Song
Strophic form:
The same melody is repeated with every stanza, or strophe, of the poem.
: proceeds from beginning to end, without repetitions of who sections.
modified strophic form
: A similar to what we heard in the lovely slow movement of Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata.
Continuation of Romantic Era
Robert Schumann is known for his symphonies, piano music, chamber music, and Lieder.
Romantic Piano Music
Frederic Chopin
Frederic Chopin dedicated his entire compositional output to the piano.

His outputs included etudes; highly virtuosic and technical study pieces--meditative nocturnes, preludes, and dances.
He was the master of the first rank whose entire creative life revolved around the piano, and he is credited with originating the modern piano style.
Modernism in the Arts
In the Early-twentieth-century there was a diverse in artistic trends.

: was a french movement developed by painters who tried to capture their "first impression".
: was the international counterpart to French Impressionsim; in music, composers such as Schoenberg and Webern.
movement: sought to revive balance and objectivity in the arts by returning to formal structures of the past.
being the first or earliest to derive and the beginning of music.
Quickly became a term of derision.
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)

Edouard Manet (1832-1883)

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)

August Renoir (1841-1919)

In the early twentieth century.

The primitivism focused on emotions and on the human character.

The Rite of the Spring
Igor Stravinsky
Expressionism movement came from painting.
Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
Paul Klee (1879-1940)
Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980)
Edvard Munch (1863-1944) famous for The Scream
In the twentieth century:
Ralph Williams
To compose in neoclassicism style was in Great Britain, Germany, France, Latin America.
Began in the twentieth century.
Jazz drew elements from African traditions and Western popular and art music.
Ragtime developed froma n African American piano style.
Blues: is an American genre of fold music based on a repetitive, poetic-musical from with three-line strophes set to a repeating harmonic pattern.
Scott Joplin
Joplin was born in Texarkana, Texas (1868-1917)
He helped ragtime gain public notice and performed at the 1893 World Exposition in Chicago.
Continuation of Jazz
The Roots of Jazz: B.B. King
(King of the Blues)
Billie Holiday (1915-1959)
Known as Lady Day
Strange Fruit was one of her most
favorite and famous songs ever
Stephen Foster (1826-1864)
He wrote the first hit song ,Oh, Susanna!
Later he to ballads and love songs like for instance Jeanie with the Long Brown Hair which was inspired by his wife Jane Denny McDowell.
Oh, Susanna! by Foster
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair
George Gershwin (1898-1937)
Porgy and Bess was Gershwin masterpiece which was a folk opera.
In his music it is very rhymthic and
very lively.
He has very sudden shifts in
Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)
He was a composer, conductor, educator, pianist, and had a television personality.
He wrote several symphonies and is best known for his stage works.
He wrote theater music On the Town, Wonderful Town, and West Side Story.
West Side Story
The West Side Story has movement,
energy, and sentiment in it.
Rock and Roll

Rock had its origins in rhythm and blues.
Folk rock, acid rock, art rock, Latin rock, heavy metal, punk rock, disco reggae, and new wave.
Rap, and element of hip hop culture is one of most popular forms of African-American music.
In the 1990s' and beyond, grunge rock, alternative rock, and global pop have captured the listening audience.
Continuation of Rock 'N Roll
Chuck Berry
Elvis Presley
Diana Ross and the Supremes
The Beatles
Ozzy Osborne
Michael Jackson
Snoop Dogg
Rock 'N Roll
Heavy Metal
Ozzy Osborne
Grunge rock:
Seattle based rock style characterized by harsh guitar chords; hybird of punk rock and heavy metal
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