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SPB003 - Visual Impairment
Transcript of SPB003 - Visual Impairment
Vision Impairment - General overview and Categories of VI
Students with VI and Resources
Environment and Classroom Management
Vision Impairment as a sensory impairment, is known as a low incident disability.
Vision is important for the development of fine & gross motor skills and students with VI develop relatively slower in acquiring basic motor skills from an early age such as crawling, walking, feeding (Westwood, 2011).
A useful thing for us to recognize, is how vision normally develops in children. Firstly, light is perceived before the awareness of other things. As vision develops their awareness causes them to notice the surroundings and later focus on people/objects. They begin to track or follow the source of light and notice nearby objects before focussing on more distant objects. A child's peripheral vision develops before central or front vision (Willis, 2009).
It is estimated that there are about 300,000 people who are blind or vision impaired in Australia (ADCET, 2013). As this number is small, teachers may often overlook the needs these students will require. As visual and linguistic intelligence is important when learning, teachers may integrate resources and programs to aid their visual learning (Queensland Government, 2005).
Presented by Lara, Olika, Max and Georgie
Overview of VI
Categories of VI
There are 4 categories of VI used to describe a child's residual vision -
Legally blind; and
Students in these categories of VI need highly individualised teaching approaches and resources which might not be readily available in mainstream schools (Westwood, 2011).
There are many devices that assist with visually impaired students. Each student’s needs are different and should be individually evaluated (ADCET, 2013).
Text to Speech/Speech to Text
Closed Circuit Televisions
Vision Australia remains to be one of the most important visual impairment Organisation within Australia.
Australian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training provides many technologies and programs
Queensland Braille Writing Association - Braille House
Students with VI
Resources for Students
Modifications to the school environment can significantly help to secure equality of access for children with visual impairment, and facilitate a more independent way of living. Improving access to the physical environment of the school can be achieved by:
• Having a well-organized classroom free of visual and physical clutter
• Areas that are well defined
• Arranging furniture to provide clear pathways that are safe and accessible
• Shelves and containers that are at children’s shoulder height
• Having materials in a consistent location
• Use a contrasting colour of tape to outline the perimeter of tables, cabinets, corners
• Installing window blinds to reduce glare
• Encouraging independent travel in the familiar settings at school, or allow the student to travel with a companion
• Purchase plants to provide sensory stimulation
• Produce displays in large font typefaces and at eye level for children with low vision
Simulate impaired vision by using blindfold/partially blackened goggles on several students.
Ensure the safety of these students as they move around the classroom.
Guess the random sounds game. Teacher makes 5 sounds (sharpening pencil, opening door etc) and student needs to identify what they were...
Allen, K.E., & Cowdery, G.E. (2012). The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education. (7th ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Assistive Technology Training Online Project (2005). Low Vision Tools.
Brown, C. (2010). Environmental checklist for developing independence. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.tsbvi.edu/orientation-a-mobility/1969-environmental-checklist-for-developing-independence
Davis, P. (2003). Towards an understanding of inclusion. Including children with a visual impairment in mainstream school: a practical guide, pg. 11-29.
Department of Education and Early Childhood development. (2012). The Tactual Learner. http://svrc.vic.edu.au/CUcore.shtml
Education NT. (2013). Vision Impairment. http://www.education.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/2292/VisionImpairment.pdf
Garguilo, R. Metcalf, D. (2013). Teaching in Today’s Inclusive Classrooms (2nd ed.). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Hooper, W. (2009). Young Children with Special Needs. p. 356-358. Pearson.
The Australian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training (ADCET). (2013). Retrieved from http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/learning/diversity/educational/vi.html
The State of Queensland (Department of Education, Training and Employment). (2005-2012). Retrieved from http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/learning/diversity/educational/vi.html
Westwood, P. (2011). Commonsense methods for children with Special Education Needs. (6th ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Willings, C. (2013). Classroom design tips. Teaching Students with Visual Impairments. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.teachingvisuallyimpaired.com/classroom-design-tips.html
Willis, C. (2009). Creating Inclusive Learning Environments for young children. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
The term VI is a term that doesn't specify the disorder or condition that caused the problem but is a term used to describe the residual vision available to the student (Willis, 2009).
The Most Common causes of severe VI are:
Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI)
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Other causes of VI can include structural defects; an inefficiency in communication between the brain interpreting and storing visual information; or the inability for the retina to send images to the brain (Westwood, 2011).
Other possible causes can be inherited or could stem from disease or conditions such as tumours or diabetes
Causes of VI
Causes of VI
When looking at adapting and changing the environment, think about changes that will allow a child to be more independent rather than thinking about just making things easier for them. When adapting or changing the physical environment think about:
• changes that increase the child's independence - do what makes sense versus creating an artificial environment
• changes that will benefit all the children
• making adaptations natural versus artificial
• before making adaptations, can the child negotiate the physical environment with familiarization versus changing the environment
• Fading adaptations and making sure that the child can negotiate the real world.
VI appropriate room image one
For some children with VI the inability to take part fully in school life causes significant emotional stress and physical fatigue. Many of these children and young people will require some of the following:
• Flexible teaching arrangements
• Appropriate seating, acoustic conditioning and lighting
• Adaptations to the physical environment
• Adaptations to school policies and procedures
• Access to alternative or augmented forms of communication
• Provision of tactile of kinaesthetic materials
• Access to low vision aids
• Access in all areas of the curriculum through specialist aids, equipment or furniture
Who can name a teacher resource??
A student resource??
Environment/ classroom management??
Children with Vision impairment are effected in many ways; especially socially. Vision is important in our social interchanges because a major part of these interchanges involves the observation of others.
Children who have visual impairments may have difficulty in social relationships because their poor vision prevents them from interpreting subtle social cues, because they cannot see how others respond to their behavior, and because their understanding of play activities, social rules, and social conventions may be limited or distorted by their lack of sight (Diamond, 2002, p. 581).
Diamond (2002) reports that studies that do describe the social interactions of children with visual impairments show that they interact more with adults than peers, and that they participate more in solitary activities than would be expected for their age.
McGaha and Farran (2001) found that children with visual impairments participated in more interactive play when they were indoors and more parallel play when they were outdoors. They speculated that children who have visual impairments are challenged to engage in interactions when confronted by the large space of a playground and children’s tendency to be mobile.
Students with VI
Vision and Learning
Students with vision impairment have unique educational and developmental needs that are the direct result of their inability or limited ability to observe the environment and respond accordingly.
Incidental or casual learning by infants and children comes primarily from vision – they receive and process approximately 80% of their information through vision. Therefore it is obvious that vision impaired students should be given as much support as possible to make learning achievable for them.
The use of a magnifier or enlarged text books would be beneficial to students.
Braille is a system of raised dots which can read by touch. It is possible to represent anything in print using braille which can then be read tactually by blind people.
Lighting can greatly impact a child's ability to see and participate in classroom activities.
Lamps and lighting are often the key to improved reading.
Common white paper often reflects a significant glare, which can make the reading process more difficult. Covering the page with a transparent coloured plastic is an option to reduce the glare.
Socialising/Piggy in the middle