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Aparthied

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by

Ayden Shaw

on 21 September 2011

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Transcript of Aparthied

Apartheid 1948-1994 In 1948 the National Party stated that South Africa was split into four categories: "white", "indian", "coloured", and "black." This began Apartheid in South Africa. South Africa was run by the "white" minority under the National Party from 1948-1994.  69 people were killed by police, including 8 women and 10 children, and over 180 injured
Some people believe the attack was provoked others and most believe it was unprovoked
Began as a peaceful protest
A storm of international protest followed the Sharpeville shootings
led to the banning of the PAC and ANC Sharpeville massacre Origins Of Apartheid The Election of 1994 was the first multi-race election in South African history. It marked the end of apartheid in South Africa but not the end of the effects of apartheid.Nelson Mandela won in a landslide Oliver Tambo- Albert Luthelli Nelson Mandela There were 4 Groups Of People
African
White
Coloured
Asian How People resisted apartheid
Stay At Home Days
Protest Marches
Petitions
Armed resistance
Womens Groups
Child/Student Protest
Anti-Aparthed Organisations How the Goverment Stifled The Protest?
Imprisonment without Trial
Torture
Banning
House arrest
Murder
Use Of Armed Force
Declaring a state of emergency
So what did seperation mean in SA after 1948?
In order to enforce apartheid,all the various racial groups were physically seperated from each other. 1913-Native Lands Act-Forbade blacks to own land and also forbaded them from practising share cropping. 1923 Urban areas Act-Created special areas away from city centers where black people could live 1936-Black peoples right to vote taken away from them. Rise of the nationalists-After WW2 National Party came to power some of its ideas were based on Hitlers in that white supremacy,they were sworn in 1948 and were to remain in power for nearly 50 years!. Racial Groups In SA at time of the 1948 Census
69% African
21% White
8% Coloured
2%Asian Walter Sisulu 1923-ANC Established it was founded in direct response to perceived injustice against black South Africans. by the Goverment. All Blacks considered citizans of Ten Black tribes (Bantustans) A bantustan (also known as black African homeland or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa, as part of apartheid. This desicion by White SA voters to establish a republic reflected there defience of international opinion. Any opposition to apartheid was met with harsh measures,Political activists were soon arrested and tortured.In fact some police were so brutal many met there deaths by "falling out of a window" Verwoerd 1964-Bomb at Johanessburg Railroad-On 24th July 1964 time bomb explded killing 3 injuring 30 P.W Botha F.W de Klerk D.A Malan 1990-Ban On ANC lifted by de Klerk he then promised hundreds of political prisoners would be released this included Nelson Mandela. Anti-Apartheid Movement 1948-1994 African National Congress (ANC) (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1960s- new policies introduced,goverment reatained support of White voting base,but many people were starting to believe the goverment were being too "soft" on the blacks.Verwoerd was shot and replaced by a man who tightened security even more Balthesar Vorster. 1960s- new policies introduced,goverment reatained support of White voting base,but many people were starting to believe the goverment were being too "soft" on the blacks.Verwoerd was shot and replaced by a man who tightened security even more Balthesar Vorster.
1944-Group of young ANC members establish a Youth League Apartheid
Legislation Structure Of South African Population 1949-ANC announce boycott program. 1960-SA banned from international events this lasted until 1990 with the lifting of Apartheid. 1956-UN set up special commision to examine racial discrimination Black Homeland Citizen Act of 1970: "blacks" no longer citizens of South Africa, but citizens of a territory (bantustan) in South Africa.

Bantu Education Act-Designed to make black children inferior
to their white counterparts.Black children were educated just enough to work in factories and urban areas.They were only taught in the language of there native tribes. 1974-Because of Apartheid the countries expelled from the UN Key Events! Revealed the level of frustration among the people, and also showed how fearful the goverment was.It also for the first time showed the world what SAs apartheid really meant and this created sympathy and revulsion of the regime
















1977-Death of Steve Biko-Leader of Black Conciousness Movement was arrested,He was dead within 26 days furthermore he had been kept naked in a cell and beaten up so badly that he'd gone into a coma. Robbin Island Nelson Mandela released from Robbin Island after being imprisoned for nearly 28 years! Aims of Apartheid- The aim of apartheid initially was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation. But starting in the 60's, a plan of ``Grand Apartheid'' was executed, emphasizing territorial separation and police repression. Reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid Steve Biko Key players Against Apartheid Key Players for Apartheid Aims Of Movement Against-The aim of the anti apartheid movement was to not allow segregation to occur and not lie down to the goverments wishes,they;d sabtage and boycott till it was abolished National Party Many white people felt threatened by black and thats one of the reasons why aparthied occured especially after WW1 when black and white fought side by side. After 1948 1961-Mandela,Oliver Tambo leave country in order to gather support for ANC

1962-5th Aug-Mandela captured by police who'd been tipped off..Charged with leaving the country illeagally,sentenced to 5 years prison. Leads to Tambo remaining abroad,allowing him to remain in contact with ANC leaders,but at the same time observing SA and whats happening there. Early 1962-Mandela secretly returns Rivernia Trial-Begins on Oct 1963 defendents plead not guilty trial lasted till June the next year Mandela and others despite there pleas were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. Soweto Riots-1976 March in the black township of Soweto started peacefully but ultimatly turned deadly especially after police shot dead a young boy,then the demonstration turned into a riot and they not only attacked police,but the white people who work in the town. 1960-5 Oct SA voted to leave the commonwealth and establish a republic,this led to another election in which the National Party won again,

Early 1960s-ANC begin training soldiers in exile,begin sabotaging Nationalist Party succesfully.Important as it marked a shift from a non violent to violent state of mind. International Reaction Fighting Back? A Resoulution at last? What led to apartheid being abolished.
Women Protest
Worldwide Opposition
Trade Unions
Economic Problems
Sanctions 1970s and 80s were a time of many funeral who died at the hands of the police.Anti apartheid movements were making country ungovernable.
(Mtzuke Bungo- Overcoming Apatheid-Cambridge (1989)) 1989-Botha suffering ill health persuaded to step down,F.W de Klerk takes over Pan Africanist Congress((PAC) Any non-white person was required to carry a pass card. These cards were also needed to pass from one area of South Africa to another. Pass Laws 1910--South African-Empowered whites giving them complete control over other race groups,also remoed the rights of blacks to sit parliment Apartheid does not happen spontaneously, like bad weather conditions.
Jonathan Kozol Id like to thank Mr Kemp for letting me do this very enjoyable project on apartheid and more to the point i look forward to seeing my name up there as the next stuent of the month....(sorry Tansy) Id like to thank Mr Kemp for allowing me to do such a fun project i hope u all enjoyed it and i look forward to seeing my name on the student of the month board.....(sorry Tans)
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