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English grammar

Language structure, word classes, grammatical phrases, clause elements
by

Jörgen Holmberg

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of English grammar

Closed Open Nouns Verbs Adjective Adverbs Pronouns Prepositions Numerals Conjunctions Interjections Proper Elvis, Umeå, Ford, Liverpool woman, cat, phone, feeling, idea gold, milk, freedom, anger, kindness concrete abstract concrete concrete concrete concrete concrete concrete concrete abstract abstract abstract abstract abstract concrete concrete can be percieved
with senses in the mind;
feelings, qualities Countable Uncountable regular irregular jump-jumped-jumped drink-drank-drunk Main verbs Auxiliary verbs Can stand on their own Normally not on their own but with main verbs
to "help them" form or express:
tense, questions/negations, negations, passive/-ing form, probability/possibility, obligation Primary aux. Modal aux. be, have, do can, could, may, might, must, ought to,
shall, should, will, would, Sentence Main clause dependent clause clause element Grammatical phrases Word classes Category of words with certain
charecteristics in common Most important word (head) in a grammatical phrase noun phrase verb phrase adjective phrase adverb phrase prepositional phrase Can be clause elements or
part of clause elements clause element clause element The man gave the green apple to his hungry son-in-law when the boat suddenly took off. Major Minor Most sentences Cannot be analyzed in a "normal" way.
Ex. How do yo do? Hi! One for the road. Noun phrase subject Verb phrase Verb Noun phrase Noun Noun Noun Verb Conjunction (prepositional) verb Adverb Adjective Adjective Noun pronoun preposition Main clause dependent clause Clause elements subject verb All clauses are made up of clause elements, each expressing a particular meaning/having a particular function in the clause. object predicative/complement Adverbial Grammatical phrases Grammatical phrases Words Words Grammatical phrases Grammatical phrases Words Words Words Words Words Words Words Object (d) Object (i) Noun phrase Noun phrase Verb phrase The man laughed The dog made a funny sound Main clause dependent clause Main clause The man laughed the dog made a funny sound and The man laughed the dog made a funny sound because Main clause subject subject verb verb object (d) subject verb subject verb object (d) subject verb adverbial Noun phrase verb Noun phrase Noun phrase verb verb Noun phrase Noun phrase verb Noun phrase verb Noun phrase Noun phrase verb Noun phrase Adverbial Adverb phrase Pronouns
Prepositions
Numerals
Conjunctions
Interjections Main clause Main clause determiner premodifier head Grammatical phrases noun phrase verb phrase adjective phrase adverb phrase prepositional phrase Can be clause elements or
part of clause elements noun phrase his hungry son-in-law next to him premodifier determiner head an article
a pronoun
a noun phrase in the genitive an adjective
a noun
a classifying noun in the genitive postmodifier a prepositional phrase
a dependent clause
and more... a noun verb phrase the boy plays the trumpet the boy is playing the trumpet the boy played the trumpet the boy has played the trumpet the boy had played the trumpet the boy was playing the trumpet the boy has been playing the trumpet contains one or more verbs the boy had been playing the trumpet the boy can/could/would/might play the trumpet adjective phrase single adjective modified by adverb followed by complement afraid afraid of the dark very afraid adverb phrase one adverb or a few word
with the adverb as head he told me very angrily prepositional phrase preposition + noun phrase
or other complement in my office above the ground in front of his eyes Word classes Express some feature or quality
of a noun or pronoun can (usually) be compared two main grammatical functions as (pre)modifier as a predicative a warm quilt many men turn bald describe:
a verb
an adjective
another adverb
a whole clause can be a question word
or a negative word
how, when, why, not, never... He sings beautifully
She runs fast
She runs slowly
It will never happen Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs Clause elements subject verb object predicative/complement Adverbial often "instead of noun" personal reflexive possessive reciprokal relative interrogative demonstrative indefinite express quantity - something, everybody, all of, none Express:
time
place/location
cause
means
exception at night on the roof suffer from sth Common after verb/adjectives depend on
scared of go by car I left without my friend cardinal numbers ordinal numbers two, five thousand second, 55th coordinators
connect clauses/phrases/words of the same kind
(and, or, but, both)

subordinators
introduce dependent clauses
(if, when, where, although, because) Ouch! Hey! Does not belong to any clause often a noun phrase or a pronoun
Mike/He went home

sometimes a dependent clause
What you did was awful

often before the first verb
Ms Harris watered the plants

Can be more than one word
The weathered faced man came to town determiner head premodifier Clause elements subject verb All clauses are made up of clause elements, each expressing a particular meaning/having a particular function in the clause. object predicative/complement Adverbial
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