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TAP Constructivism EDUC 518
Transcript of TAP Constructivism EDUC 518
-Distributed cognition: “Process whereby learners think about an issue or problem together, sharing ideas and working collaboratively to draw conclusions or develop solutions. (Ormrod 2011, p. 221)
-One student indicated that having a partner allowed each of them to add information that the other may not have and that collaborating and watching each other for mistakes was a benefit. More examples of Community of Learners in "Investigating Crickets" (n. d.): "Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication" (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p.68). “Ms. McClullen is trying to teach us what it is to be a real scientist because scientists don’t have teachers telling them a right or wrong answer and she’s trying to teach us to think for ourselves and solve our own problem instead of asking others” (Annenberg Media, n. d.).
Ms. McClullen has her students work in pairs because it teaches them social and cooperative skills, and to value each other and themselves . Partnering, communicating, figuring out a problem, etc. are all skills that will be used in the real world from jobs to relationships. Ms. McClullen gave examples of how to go through setting up the hypothesis, making connections to living organisms, and other steps for the scientific method before the students were to do same procedures themselves. This allowed students to first see the procedure and then they had to take what they understood and interpret it for use in their own experiments. Providing Opportunities For First Hand Observation and Experimentation
By conducting a hands-on experiment in Ms. McClullen's class, students were motivated and enthusiastic about their work because it related to the world around them. Each pair gets a bottle with some crickets to observe.
After observations, the pair uses the scientific method and develops their own experiment based on their own hypothesis.
Each pair sets up their own experiments and tests out their hypothesis. Alternate Teaching Strategy
“As teachers, we can more easily address student’s misconceptions when we know what they are. Thus, we should probably begin any new topic by assessing students’ current beliefs about the topic–perhaps simply by asking a few informal questions and probing further if students’ explanations are vague” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 240). Before instruction, the teacher can break the class into groups to discuss what they know about the scientific method and crickets. This can address some misconceptions the students may have on the topic and help solidify their understanding of both the scientific method and crickets. Students will add a reflection section to their poster that is being presented to the teacher for assessment.
Paper-pencil assessment: Students will write a paragraph containing a reflection. Some points to include in the reflection: What they learned from the experiment, how to modify future experiments, and how their perspective changed about crickets through this lesson. Constructivism puts students at the center of learning by allowing them to construct their knowledge on their own or with others. By incorporating this theory in Mary McClullen's 9th grade class, the class was able to be a community of learners, take part in an authentic activity that will aid them in their future endeavors, and have first hand observations and experiments that allowed students to construct their own experience. With additional lessons, based in promoting conceptual change, it would help her students to address misconceptions and solidify their understanding of their experiments as well. Although the use of constructivism can have a risk of misconceptions spreading from student to student, with careful facilitation from the teacher, constructivism can be used as a powerful tool for teaching and learning. Community of Learners: “Class in which teachers and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn.” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 234) Yuri Ku | Jeffrey Pitser | Alvaro Zambrano University of Southern California | EDUC-518 |February 15, 2013 |Dr. Kimberly Ferrario Understand Procedural Knowledge Students who participate in this community gain a valuable skill set that would otherwise be overlooked through a non-communal classroom setting. Through social interaction with other peers in the community of learners, students would gain confidence around one another and in turn feel comfortable sharing with the class. Knowledge Dimension
Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods, and structures
Cognitive Process Dimension
Interpreting, clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating For example, children who have been purposely misinformed about where babies come from can continue to pass on their misconception amongst their peers. Learners are able to construct, rather than absorb, knowledge on their own and with others. Learners make generalizations about their world based on what they've learned and experienced. The Big Picture from Ormrod (2011) "Learner's constructions are sometimes productive and sometimes counterproductive." (Ormrod, 2011, p. 245) Community of learners
Teachers who subscribe to constructivist theory establish a community of learners in their classrooms by which students learn through social interaction and active participation amongst their peers. In Mary McClullen’s 9th grade class, the use of constructivism was obvious through a community of learners between the teacher and students as well as amongst students. Evidence of a community of learners in "Investigating Crickets" (n. d.): Josiah engaging with another group and helping them figure out a better alternative to their cricket housing design.
Christine & Huey getting some help from Mrs. McClullen to figure out their hypothesis.
Students working in pairs (figuring out how their cricket questions relate to living organisms, figuring out the variable, making a hypothesis, creating an experiment, putting the experiment together, etc.). Authentic Activity
This type of activity allows students to learn and practice real life skills within the classroom setting; Thus making them better prepared for the real world. Evidence of authentic activity in "Investigating Crickets" (n. d.): Evidence of first hand observations and experimentation in "Investigating Crickets" (n. d.): Promote conceptual change before and after the experiment. Informal pre-assessment consisting of a group discussion. Ask questions about scientific method and crickets (i.e. Based on previous experience, what are the proper steps in going about an experiment? or What do you know about crickets?) and have students answer.
Paper-pencil recognition pre-assessment to see what is known by the students. The format may be multiple-choice or true-false (True or False: Crickets are a living organism). Assessment After instruction, have students reflect on their experiment. Have them think about how their experiment proved or debunked their hypothesis. This allows them to construct more concrete knowledge on the cause and effects of their experiments as well as understand how to improve their experiments for the future. Assessment Conclusion Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.) (2011). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and
Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York, NY: Longman.
Kaiser Permanente Thrive Ad–Where do babies come from. (Nov. 10, 2011). Retrieved
February 13, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4lG4m5kdWM.
Ormrod, J. E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, (7th ed.). Boston, MA:
Teaching High School Science – Investigating Crickets. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2013,
from https://www.2sc.usc.edu/mod/assignment/view.php?id=28751 Students will be able to understand the scientific method. “Ask students to reflect on and describe how their beliefs about a topic have changed as a result of instruction” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 241). “As teachers, we can more easily address student’s misconceptions when we know what they are. Thus, we should probably begin any new topic by assessing students’ current beliefs about the topic–perhaps simply by asking a few informal questions and probing further if students’ explanations are vague” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 240). “Class in which teachers and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn.” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 234) "Classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world" (Ormrod, 2011, p. 231) “By observing, interacting, and experimenting with the world around them, students can discover many characteristics and principles of the world on their own” (Ormrod, 2011, p. 228). "How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods" (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p. 46).