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AP U.S. History: Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19 Review

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Thomas Martin

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of AP U.S. History: Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19 Review

Chapter Sixteen: Review
Cotton is King
Cotton became the dominant crop in the South
Cotton growing benefited the North (textile mills & shippers) and the South
Britain was heavily dependent on Southern cotton for its cloth-making industry
Britain's dependence on Southern cotton made the South feel powerful
Britain's dependence also guaranteed Britain's support should civil war ever break out
The Planter Aristocracy
The South was like an oligarchy (rule by the few); the 1,733 families with more than 100 slaves dominated Southern society and politics; aka the "cottonocracy" (25% of Southerners had slaves)
The planters had most wealth, educated children in schools (North or abroad)
Planters had money for leisure, study, reflection, politics; felt an obligation to serve the public
Widened the gap between the rich and the poor; did not support public education
Southerners were fighting for "a decaying social structure"
The mistress of a plantation had a large household staff; relationships with her slaves varied
Slaves of the Slave System
The White Majority
Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters
Plantation Slavery
Life Under the Lash
The Burdens of Bondage
Early Abolitionism
Radical Abolitionism
The South Lashes Back
The Abolitionist Impact in the North
Chapter Seventeen: Review
Chapter Eighteen: Review
Chapter Nineteen: Review
The Accession of "Tyler Too"
John Tyler: A President Without a Party
A War of Words With Britain
Manipulating the Maine Maps
The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone
The Belated Texas Nuptials
Oregon Fever Populates Oregon
A Mandate for Manifest Destiny
Polk the Purposeful
Misunderstandings with Mexico
American Blood on American Soil
The Mastering of Mexico
Fighting Mexico for Peace
Profit and Loss in Mexico
American Pageant:
Chapters 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 Review

Plantation agriculture was wasteful because cotton ruined the soil and a search for quick profits led to over-cultivation
The South's economic structure became monopolistic
The temptation to overspeculate in land and slaves put many planters into debt
The South's economy was dangerously dependent upon one crop whose value was at the mercy of world conditions
The economic structure discouraged diversification of industry and agriculture
The South resented seeing Northerners grow rich at their expense
The South repelled European immigration because immigrants couldn't compete with slave labor, the cost of land was high, and Europeans didn't know how to grow cotton; as a result, the South became the most Anglo-Saxon part of the country
Slaves resisted slavery by slowing down production, sabotaging equipment, pretending to be sick, self-mutilation, destruction of property, and running away
25% of Southerners owned slaves; only 1,733 families had more than 100 slaves
2/3 of masters had fewer than 10 slaves; smaller slave owners' lives resembled those of small Northern farmers than the Southern planter aristocracy
75% Southerners did not own slaves, were subsistence farmers, were scorned by slaves and whites alike
Southerners without slaves defended slavery because they hoped to one day buy a slave and become rich; they also took pride in their presumed racial superiority, which would be lessened if the slaves were freed
Mountain whites of the Appalachian Range supported Lincoln and the Republicans; would be an important weapon for the Union side during the Civil War
Many free blacks were mulattoes (children of white planter and black mistress), had purchased their freedom, or were voluntarily released by their masters
Free blacks were prohibited from working in certain jobs, forbidden from testifying against whites in court, and were vulnerable to being sold back into slavery
They were walking examples of what could be achieved through emancipation, and therefore were hated by slavery-defenders
Free blacks were also unpopular in the North - some states forbade their entrance, most denied the right to vote, some barred them from public schools
They were hated by the Irish because they competed for menial jobs
Cotton economy creates a demand for slaves; blacks were smuggled into the South, but most of the slave population came from natural reproduction (which was unique for New World slave societies)
Planters regarded slaves as expensive investments; they were the primary form of wealth in the South, and were spared dangerous jobs for fear of losing that investment (those jobs were given to Irish laborers)
Slavery was profitable for planters, but handicapped the economy as a whole (Deep South had the most slaves)
Forced "breeding" of slaves was not openly encouraged
Slave auctions were the most cruel part of slavery because they split up families
White Southerners often romanticized the lives of their slaves
Conditions for slaves varied depending upon region, master, and other factors; slaves everywhere faced hard work, ignorance, and oppression
Slaves had extremely limited political and civil rights; they could not testify in court, nor were their marriages recognized by the law
Physical punishment (flogging) was common, however was not used a lot because it could damage a slave's value
By 1800 most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South; life for slaves was harder here than in the Old South
Most blacks lived on larger plantations with 20+ slaves
Some counties had majority black populations; here, family life was more stable, and an African American slave culture developed
African cultural roots were shown by the slaves in their naming practices, marital customs (didn't marry first cousins) and religion (responsorial - style preaching)
Slavery was degrading towards its victims
Slaves were denied education because it might spark ideas of rebellion
Slaves slowed down their production rate (causing the myth of black "laziness" in many Southerners' minds)
Slaves stole food and other goods; they sabotaged equipment; occasionally poisoned their master's food
Many slaves ran away; some harmed themselves or pretended to be sick
Some rebellions occurred (Gabriel's rebellion in 1800, Denmark Vesey in 1822, Nat Turner in 1831)
White Southerners "lived in a state of imagined siege"; they lived in fear of slave rebellions
White Southerners' fears caused a theory of biological superiority, and made the South reject progress; Southerners were forced to degrade themselves to protect slavery
First abolitionists were Quakers
Some early movements focused on moving blacks back to Africa; the American Colonization Society was founded in 1817, and established the country of Liberia in 1822
Britain's abolishing of slavery in the West Indies along with the swell of enthusiasm from the Second Great Awakening refueled the fire for abolitionists
Some early abolitionists included Theodore Weld and the Beecher Family (Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin", an anti-slavery novel
William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper; called for the immediate abolition of slavery
Garrison and his followers formed the American Anti-Slavery Society
Wendell Phillips: "abolition's golden trumpet"
Black abolitionists included David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Martin Delaney, and most importantly Frederick Douglass
Douglass looked to politics as a way to end slavery; he and others supported the Liberty Party (1840), the Free-Soil Party (1848), and then the Republican Party in the 1850s
The emancipation debate in the South stopped after the Virginia State legislature decided not to free its slaves in the early 1830s
After VA's decision, slave states tightened their slave codes
Rebellions, the nullification crisis, abolitionist publications brought fear into Southerners' minds
The South re-branded slavery as a good thing for the slaves; they said it brought the Africans away from the barbaric jungle of Africa and to the Christian United States; they also said that master - slave relations were like family relationships
They said the Bible and the philosopher Aristotle supported slavery
White Southerners said that northern "wage slaves" were worse off than slaves because slaves didn't have to worry about losing their job because of sickness, old age, or lack of funds
Proslavery arguments widened the gap b/w North and South; showed the lack of moral development in the South
The controversy endangered freedom of speech and press in the whole country; The Gag Resolution stopped abolitionist petitions from being considered; Washington ordered Southern postmasters to destroy abolitionist publications
Abolitionists were originally unpopular in the North b/c Northerners were taught to revere the Constitution, and saw the clauses on slavery as an everlasting bargain
The North had a heavy economic stake in the South (cotton, debt, etc.)
Outbursts occurred in the North, provoked by abolitionists
Eventually the abolitionist movement made a dent in public opinion; many Northerners supported banning slavery in new territories (known as "free-soilers")
"Spoilsmen" looking for government jobs swarmed the capitol after Harrison's inauguration in 1841
Harrison was a figurehead; the true leaders of the Whigs were Daniel Webster and Henry Clay
Harrison died from pneumonia after four weeks of service; John Tyler, his VP, became president
Tyler was a lone wolf, Virginia gentleman who was stubbornly attached to principle
Tyler had left the Democrats b/c of Jackson's political tactics
Tyler was put on Harrison's ticket to attract the vote of the states' rights faction of the Whig Party
Tyler opposed the majority of his party on almost every major issue
The Whig's platform was strongly nationalistic
Financial reform came first; a bill eliminating the independent treasury system was signed into law
Tyler vetoed a bill calling for a new "Fiscal Bank"; he later vetoed a less extreme version of the bill too
Tyler was subject to much disrespect within his own party; he was kicked out of his party, and an attempt at impeaching him was made
All of Tyler's cabinet resigned except Webster
Tyler vetoed a Whig tariff bill b/c it called for the redistribution of revenue from the sale of Western public lands among the states; Tyler later passed a bill that eliminated the redistribution and had a lower rate
The U.S. hated Britain b/c:
Memories of previous wars
Pro-British Federalists had died out
British travelers wrote bad reports about America
British journalists attacked America's shortcomings
America did not have a copyright law to protect foreign authors yet
America had borrowed money from Britain and was in debt
A Canadian revolt, the
affair, and the Alexander McLeod Affair caused tensions to rise b/w U.S. and Britain
British offerings of asylum to escaped American slaves in the Caribbean
The proposed route of a road from Halifax to Quebec invaded Maine's northern boundary
Small skirmishes broke out, known as the "Aroostook War"
Lord Ashburton, Britain's appointed diplomat, and Daniel Webster struck a compromise: the U.S. retained 7,000 sq miles of land while Britain got the land necessary to complete its road
Mexico regarded Texas as a province in revolt, and threatened war if Texas was annexed into the U.S.
Mexican raids made Texas look to Europe for safety and protection
British was interested in Texas because: Texas would slow the southwestern grow of the USA, Britain could use Texas to distract America while major world powers violated the Monroe Doctrine, Britain could use Texas to inflame Southern slaves and decrease Britain dependence on American cotton
Texas was a leading issue in the election of 1844; Democrats (James K. Polk) won
Lame-duck Tyler interpreted Polk's victory as a mandate to acquire Texas
Tyler thought that Whig opposition in Congress would prevent a treaty from being signed (treaties require 2/3 vote), so he arranged for annexation by a joint resolution (only needs 1/2 votes).
Texas would have been dangerous to the United States if it continued to be independent by inviting foreign powers into the western hemisphere
British claims to Oregon were strong, based on prior discovery/exploration, treaty rights, and actual occupation; the most important colonizing agency for Oregon was the Hudson's Bay Company
America could claim to exploration (Captain Robert Gray, Lewis & Clark) and actual occupation of some missionaries and other settlers
America offered the 49th Parallel as a border, Britain offered the Columbia River
In the early 1840s, Oregon Fever struck and encouraged rapid American settlement
The issue was thrown into the 1844 election
Democrats were deadlocked for choosing a candidate in 1844; Van Buren opposed annexation of Texas, making him unpopular for Southern expansionists
Finally the Democrats nominated James K. Polk, the first "dark horse" candidate
Whigs nominated Henry Clay
The 1844 campaign was an expression of Manifest Destiny: the belief that God had destined the United States to spread across the continent
Expansionist Democrats were especially moved by Manifest Destiny; they wanted the annexation of Texas and Oregon (Oregon at 54º 40')
Henry Clay lost support by straddling the Texas issue; the Liberty Party in New York also took away crucial support
Democrats saw the victory as a mandate to annex Texas
Polk's four point program: lowered tariff, restoration of the independent treasury, acquisition of California, and the settlement of the Oregon dispute
The Walker Tariff of 1846 produced much revenue due to economic prosperity after it was passed
The independent treasury was restored in 1846
Polk proposed the 49th parallel again; Britain initially refused, but then later on accepted that boundary
The Senate's ratification of the treaty dividing Oregon was influenced by the Mexican War
Polk originally wanted to buy California from Mexico, but relations with Mexico were tense because of unpaid debt to the US and the Texas annexation and boundary issue (diplomatic relations had been severed after annexation)
Mexicans saw the Nueces River as Texas's boundary; Texans saw the Rio Grande as its boundary (Mexico was less worried about the boundary dispute than America was)
False rumors circulated that Britain was looking to buy/seize California
As a last attempt for peaceful negotiation, Polk sent the Slidell mission to arrange to buy California; Mexico did not even allow Slidell to offer his proposal
Polk was now prepared to force a showdown; in January, 1846 Polk sent some troops under General Zachary Taylor to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande River to spark the fighting
When no clash was initially heard of, Polk asked Congress to declare war on the flimsy grounds of unpaid debts and Slidell's rejection
In April, 1846 Mexican troops attacked the American ones on the Rio Grande
Congress declares war on Mexico; skeptical Congressman Abraham Lincoln introduced "spot" resolutions to find the exact spot on American soil where Americans were attacked
Both sides were itching for a fight, and both fought with moral indignation
Polk had hoped to fight war on a limited scale, pulling out once he had captured California
An exiled Santa Anna tricked Polk into letting him go back to Mexico to rally troops
American operations in the Southwest and California were very successful; Captain John C. Frémont worked with American naval officers to capture California
General Zachary Taylor ("Old Rough and Ready") captured Buena Vista and became known as the Hero of Buena Vista
General Winfield Scott ("Old Fuss and Feathers") captured Mexico City, winning the Mexican War
Chief Clerk of the State Dept Nicholas P. Trist was sent with Scott's army when he captured Mexico City
Trist initially was recalled after failing to produce a favorable treaty shortly; Trist ignored the command and negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February, 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: confirmed America's ownership of Texas, yielded the land east of California
In return the US paid $15 million for the land and would assume the debts of Mexican citizens to Americans
Some extreme expansionists wanted all of Mexico; ironically the treaty was opposed by those who wanted none of Mexico and those who wanted all of it
The treaty was finally approved by the Senate
The Mexican War was a small one with generous benefits: America's size increased by a third, giving a stimulus to the spirit of Manifest Destiny
The war gave priceless experience to future Civil War leaders
The Mexican and American armies regarded one another with more respect
Mexican-American and Latin American-American relations deteriorated as Latin America begins to view the US as a bully
The biggest result was the upbringing of the slavery issue
Abolitionists saw the war as one provoked by the southern "slavocracy" for its own benefit
The Wilmot Proviso banned slavery from new territories made from the Mexican Cession; it did not pass
The Popular Sovereignty Panacea
Political Triumphs for General Taylor
"Californy Gold"
Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad
Twilight of the Senatorial Giants
Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill
Breaking the Congressional Logjam
Balancing the Compromise Scales
Defeat and Doom for the Whigs
Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border
The Allure of Asia
Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase
Douglas's Kansas - Nebraska Scheme
Congress Legislates a Civil War
Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries
The North-South Contest for Kansas
Kansas in Convulsion
"Bully" Brooks and His Bludgeon
"Old Buck" vs.
"The Pathfinder"
The Electoral Fruits of 1856
The Dred Scott Bombshell
The Financial Crash of 1857
An Illinois
Rail-Splitter Emerges
The Great Debate: Lincoln vs. Douglas
John Brown: Murderer or Martyr?
The Disruption
of the Democrats
A Rail-Splitter
Splits the Union
The Electoral
Upheaval of 1860
The Secessionist Exodus
The Collapse of Compromise
Farewell to Union
The two major political parties were vital to national unity b/c they had each support from the North and South
Democrats nominated Lewis Cass for president in 1848; the platform ignored slavery, but Cass strongly supported "popular sovereignty" - the opinion of a territory's population - deciding whether or not slavery was allowed in that territory
Popular sovereignty was appealing to the public because it was democratic; politicians liked it because they did not have to pick a side between the free-soilers and slavery supporters (aka "fire-eaters")
The Whig Party nominated Zachary Taylor, a hero from the Mexican War
The Whig platform was weak on the issues; it mainly focused on Taylor's authenticity and humble background; Taylor did not take a position on slavery, but owned slaves himself
Antislaveryites in the North organized the Free-Soil Party; it opposed expanding slavery into new territories and nominated Martin Van Buren for president
The Free-Soil Party foreshadowed the emergence of the Republican Party
Taylor won the election
Gold was discovered near Sutter's Mill in California in 1848
Tens of thousands of settlers, struck by gold fever, poured into California; few became rich from gold, those who really profited were those charging inflated rates to the miners for services like laundry
The massive migration overwhelmed California's small government, leading to crime and violence
President Taylor privately encouraged California to draft a constitution that forbids slavery and apply for statehood
Southern politicians were angered by California's attempt to bypass the territorial stage
The South of 1850 was well-off; they had the presidency, the cabinet, and the Supreme Court, and slavery was not seriously threatened where it already existed
The South was worried about the political balance tipping in favor of free-soil; possible slave territories were running out
Texas had claimed territory to the West that the federal government was proposing to detach; this led to conflict
Southerners were angered by attempts to abolish slavery in the capitol of D.C.
The Underground Railroad, operated by "conductors" like Harriet Tubman, angered the South as well
By 1850 the South was demanding a stricter fugitive slave law
Southern threats of secession and California's requests for statehood brought the "immortal trio" of Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Henry Clay onto the public stage together one last time
Henry Clay urged for mutual concessions and compromises, backed by Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Calhoun liked the principle of Clay's compromises, but thought they did not protect the South's rights enough; he proposed leaving slavery alone, and an impossible scheme of electing a president from each section, North and South
Daniel Webster supported Clay's compromises, but thought that legislating on slavery was unnecessary because the Mexican Cession territory was not useful for plantation-style agriculture
Webster's speech turned the tide in the North towards compromise
The Young Guard from the North, a generation of new leaders who were not interested in compromise, wanted to purify the Union, not patch it up
William H. Seward, a strong antislaveryite, came out strongly against concession
Seward argued that we must obey God's law, a higher law than the Constitution; these ideas would later cost him his presidential nomination
President Taylor seemed bent on vetoing any compromise; if he had chosen to attack Texas, civil war likely would have begun sooner
In 1850, President Taylor died, leaving Millard Fillmore in his place
Fillmore eagerly signed the Compromise of 1850 into law
A feeling of acceptance sprung up due to Clay's many speeches, a growing spirit of goodwill, and a surge in prosperity due to California gold
Southern fire eaters were still opposed to concessions
In June, 1850 a meeting of Southern extremists occurred and condemned the compromises then being made in Congress; a later convention was a dud as a 2nd Era of Good Feelings emerged
Both the North and the South felt - for a moment - that the issue of slavery should be buried under the compromise.
The North got the better deal in the Compromise of 1850 (CA permanently set the balance in the Senate against the South)
Concessions to the North: CA admitted as a free state, territory disputed b/w Texas and New Mexico is given to New Mexico, and abolition of the slave TRADE in D.C.
Concessions to the South: Mexican Cession will be made into the territories of New Mexico and Utah where slavery shall be decided by popular sovereignty, Texas receives $10 million in compensation, and a more stringent fugitive slave law
The South saw the Caribbean as way to restore the sectional balance
The new Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was so horrible that it drove many moderate northerners to support anti-slavery, and state governments made it harder to enforce the new law
The delay between the compromise and the war allowed the North to advance technologically, industrially, and morally
The Democratic candidate for the 1852 election was Franklin Pierce; he was chosen b/c he lacked enemies and was acceptable to the pro-southern wing of the party
The Whigs missed an opportunity to capitalize on their achievement in the Compromise of 1850 by nominating General Winfield Scott, a Mexican War hero
Both platforms supported the Compromise of 1850, Democrats did with more enthusiasm
A split in the Whig Party and the Free-Soil candidate John P. Hale made Scott lose
The election of 1852 marked the disorganization and eventual death of the Whig Party; the Whig legacy was upholding the ideals of union and compromise
The Mexican War victory and the discovery of gold reinvigorated the spirit of Manifest Destiny
British encroachment into Central America encouraged the U.S. and New Granada to sign the Bidlack Treaty of 1848; it guaranteed America's right of transit across the isthmus in return for America's perfect neutrality of the route to promote free trade
The Clayton-Bulwer of 1850 Treaty b/w the US and Britain avoided conflict by forbidding either country from fortifying or controlling any future isthmian waterway
Southern "slavocrats" wanted more slave territories and looked to the South for land
William Walker attempted to capture the country of Nicaragua for slavery but was later overthrown
Cuba, already having an enslaved black population, was coveted by the South (Polk had offered to buy it from Spain but his offer was refused)
B/w 1850 - 1851 two filibustering expeditions took place to capture Cuba; both failed
When Spain seized an American ship called the Black Warrior, Pierce had his chance to take Cuba by force; instead, the secretary of state instructed American ministers in several European countries to draft recommendations for the acquisition of Cuba known as the Ostend Manifesto - it basically offered $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain refused the offer and continued to endanger America's interests, the U.S. had good reason to take the island by force
The Ostend Manifesto leaked out, and protests from free-soilers made the Pierce Administration drop the reckless scheme for Cuba
The slavery issue thus made territorial expansion harder in the 1850s
The US became a Pacific power after acquiring Oregon and California
Britain had already gained dominance of trade with China; protests by American merchants made President Tyler send Caleb Cushing to establish Chinese-American trade relations
The Treaty of Wanghia was later signed b/w the U.S. and China in 1844; it made the U.S. the "most favored nation" of China to do trade with; trade b/w the countries flourished
The treaty provided an opportunity for American missionaries to go to China and convert many of the Chinese to Christianity
Success in China increased efforts to establish relations with Japan, whose Tokugawa Shogunate government had led an intense policy of isolationism for 250 years
In 1852 President Fillmore dispatched Matthew C. Perry to Japan to establish free trade and friendly relations
In March, 1854 the Treaty of Kanagawa established economic and diplomatic relations b/w the U.S. and Japan
The Mexican War (and the territory the U.S. got) caused transportation problems; people were afraid that isolated Western territories might break away from the United States
The North and the South argued over which section should contain the continental railroad
The Gadsden Purchase gave the United States a small chunk of land in Northern Mexico; the purchase strengthened the argument for the South having the continental railroad b/c the proposed rout would: not be so mountainous, not be in unorganized territory, and be protected by federal troops from hostile Indians
The North then wanted to organize the Nebraska territory to strengthen its argument for the continental railroad, but Southern congressmen opposed efforts to organize Nebraska
Stephen A. Douglas wanted Chicago to be the beginning of the continental railroad; in order to increase support for his plan, he wrote the Kansas-Nebraska Act; the Nebraska territory would be divided into the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and their stance on slavery would be decided with popular sovereignty.
The bill contradicted the Missouri Compromise, which forbids slavery north of Missouri's southern border; in order for the Kansas-Nebraska Act to be passed, the Missouri Compromise had to be repealed
President Pierce threw his support behind the Kansas-Nebraska Act, but Northerners respected the Missouri Compromise as sacred
Douglas rammed the bill through Congress where it passed with a lot of Southern support
The Kansas-Nebraska Act sped up the arrival of the Civil War
The Democrats were deeply divided and hurt by the K-N Act
The K-N Act led to the formation of the Republican Party; despite including many different political factions, the party was sectional (was only strong in the North)
The sectionalism of the Republican Party also led to disunion and the Civil War
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel
Uncle Tom's Cabin
showed the cruelties of slavery; it became widely popular in America and in England
Uncle Tom's Cabin
infuriated the South, who called it untrue, and inspired the North to fight against slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
's popularity in England made sure that the South would not receive England's support during the Civil War
Hinton R. Helper's
The Impending Crisis of the South
stated that the slave system hurt the non-slaveholding whites the most (the book was not popular with its intended audience, but increased southern fears of the non-slaveowning majority turning on them)
These books made the South unwilling to exist under the same federal "roof" as the North
Most northerners who came to Kansas were just looking for a better life, but some were paid by abolitionist/free soil groups like the New England Emigrant Aid Company to prevent Kansas from becoming a slave state
Southerners became angry b/c the K-N Act had the unspoken agreement that Nebraska would become a free state and Kansas would become a slave state; however, Northerners were plotting to make both of them free states
Attempts to plant slaveowners in Kansas failed
When Kansas elected its first legislature, "border ruffians" from the slave-state of Missouri jumped the border and tipped the balance in favor of slavery
The slave-supporters set up their fraudulent government in Shawnee Mission; the anti-slavery supporter set up an illegal regime in Topeka
The burning of the town of Lawrence by pro-slavery supporters increased tensions
John Brown, a radical abolitionist, murdered five pro-slavery supporters at Pottawatomie Creek in Kansas; this attack started the mini Civil War in Kansas
In 1857 Kansas had enough people to become a state; first they had to have a constitution though
The pro-slavery legislature of Kansas drafted the Lecompton Constitution; however, voters could only for the constitution "with slavery" or "with no slavery"
Even if the constitution was voted in without slavery, the constitution protected slaveowners already in Kansas
Angered free-soilers boycotted the polls, leading to the passage f the constitution "with slavery"
Democratic president Buchanan threw his support behind the Constitution; however, Stephen Douglas (also a Democrat) opposed it; this shows the split in the Democratic Party
After national attention was called to the issue, the constitution was then allowed to be voted on as a whole; now the free-soilers voted against the constitution and Kansas remained a territory
With the Democratic Party divided, another link of national unity was cut
The Sumner-Butler Affair involved verbal attacks by abolitionist senator Charles Sumner towards southern senator Andrew Butler; these attacks were returned by a brutal physical attack by another southern congressman, Preston S. Brooks
The North was infuriated by Brooks's actions (the attack on Sumner led to a strengthening of the Republican Party)
The South celebrated Brooks's actions, but hated the North for applauding Sumner's verbal attacks that started the conflict
In the election of 1856, the Democrats nominate James Buchanan b/c he lacked enemies and was not involved in the Kansas debacle ("Old Buck")
The Republicans nominated John C. Frémont ("the Pathfinder") and was nominated for the same reasons as Buchanan
The Republican platform strongly opposed extension of slavery, while the Democrats' supported popular sovereignty
The Know-Nothing or American Party was made up of nativists who were anti-foreigner and anti-Catholic; they noiminated Millard Fillmore
Mudslinging was brutal during this election
Buchanan won the 1856 election
Frémont lost b/c people doubted his character; the major reason was b/c Southern extremists threatened to secede if the Republicans were elected
It was a good thing that Civil War did not start in 1856; the North as not as determined to maintain the Union, and Frémont was not as good of a leader as Lincoln was
The Republicans could claim a "victorious defeat" because they had made a strong opposition for being a two-year old party
Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom; the case went all the way to the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court ruled that Scott was a slave and could not sue in court
The Court went on to declare that Congress had no right to ban slavery in any territory because slaves were private property
The ruling satisfied the South, but made the Republican North wish to defy the decision
The South was angered over the North's defiant reaction
The Panic of 1857 was caused by: CA gold inflating the currency, a grain industry overstimulated by the Crimean War in Europe, and overspeculation in land and railroads
The North was harder hit than the South; because of this, the South was deluded into thinking that its economy was stronger than the North's
Stress on the agriculture industry led to increased support for free farms from the public domain
Efforts for a "homestead act" encountered opposition fro Eastern industrialists (who were afraid to lose their workforce) and Southerners (b/c slavery could not thrive on small farms, and the law would tip the balance in favor of free-soil)
In 1860 Congress passed a homestead act, but it was vetoed by Buchanan
The panic led to support for higher tariffs (the lower Tariff of 1857 made many Northern industrialists believe that the lower rates caused the economic hardship
The panic gave Republicans to economic issues to argue on in 1860: homesteads, and higher tariffs
Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, challenged Democratic Illinois senator Stephen Douglas for his seat in Congress, giving him national attention
Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates (known as the Lincoln-Douglas debates)
During a specific debate, a question asked by Lincoln to Douglas led to the Freeport Doctrine: no matter what the Supreme Court, the people could vote slavery down
Lincoln lost the Senate seat, but he gained national attention as a possible Republican nominee for president in 1860
Douglas won the seat but hurt his chances of winning the presidency by his support of the Freeport Doctrine (he lost southern Democratic votes b/c of his views)
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry failed b/c slaves refused to rebel
Brown was executed for his crimes
Brown's actions made the South angry; his actions made Southerners believe that all Northerners supported violent actions for the abolitionist cause like Brown did
Anti-slavery supporters were angered by Brown's execution and saw him as a martyr for their cause
The presidential election of 1860 divided the Democratic Party
The northern wing of the Democrats supported Stephen Douglas, but southerners saw him as a traitor; Douglas's platform supported popular sovereignty
Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge; his platform supported the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of Cuba
Moderate Democrats organized the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell
Republicans chose Lincoln over the more obvious choice of William H. Seward (Seward was too radical)
The Republican platform appealed to every important non-southern group:
Free - soilers: non-extension of slavery
Manufacturers: higher tariff
Immigrants: no abridgment of rights
Northwest: a Pacific railroad
West: internal improvements at federal expense
Farmers: free homesteads
Southerners hinted that Lincoln's election would cause secession, but Lincoln did not confirm or deny these rumors in order to not make any new enemies
Lincoln wins a sweeping victory b/c the Democrats were hopelessly divided
The South rejoiced over Lincoln's victory - they now had a reason to secede
The South was not hurt very much by its loss; the pro-slavery majority on the Supreme Court and in the two chambers of Congress continued, and the federal government could not touch slavery without an amendment, which southern states could easily defeat
South Carolina was the first state to secede; six weeks later, six other states in the lower south had seceded, forming the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis was chosen as the president of the Confederacy; original capitol: Montgomery, Alabama (later moved to Richmond, VA)
The secession crisis was worsened by the "lame-duck" tactics of outgoing-president Buchanan; his uncertainty and unwillingness to use force made it easier for the South to secede
The Crittenden Amendments were the last attempt at compromise b/w the North and South
The generous terms of the Amendment would have allowed the expansion of slavery, and because of this Lincoln flatly rejected them
Southerners supported secession b/c: they were alarmed by the tipping of the political balance against them, they were alarmed by the triumph of the sectional Republican Party, they were tired of free-soil criticism/abolitionist nagging/northern interference, they thought their secession would be unpopular, but mostly the South wanted to end its service to the North
Few Southerners thought secession was wrong or immoral
Events Leading to the Civil War
The Compromise of 1850
California is admitted as a free state (+N)
Slavery in new territories from the Mexican cession will be decided through popular sovereignty (+S)
Slave TRADE banned in D.C. (+N)
Tougher Fugitive Slave Law (+S)
The North got the better deal
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Called for slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories
Was controversial because it violated the Missouri Compromise
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The Impending Crisis of the South
Novels by H. B. Stowe and Hinton R. Helper
showed the evils of slavery; it increased opposition to slavery in the North (South called it untruthful)
discouraged England from providing aid to the South during the Civil War
Lecompton Constitution
Proposed Kansas state constitution; could only be voted for "with slavery" or "with no slavery"
The constitution protected pre-existing slaveowners already in Kansas
Free-soilers boycotted the vote, leading to the constitution being passed with slavery
Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom (the case went all the way to the Supreme Court)
The Supreme Court ruled that Scott could not sue in court because he was a slave; they also ruled that b/c slaves are private property, Congress cannot ban slaves in any territory b/c of the 5th Amendment
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Gave Lincoln national recognition despite losing the Senate race in Illinois
John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
October, 1859: John Brown attacks the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA to inspire a slave rebellion; he failed
Brown's actions angered the South, but his execution angered the North
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins the 1860 election, giving the South a reason to secede
Bleeding Kansas
After the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, pro and anti slavery forces battled for control over Kansas
The town of Lawrence was burned by pro-slavery supporters
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