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Evidence of Evolution

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Ayden Loughney

on 22 February 2014

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Transcript of Evidence of Evolution

Descent with Modification
Natural Selection
Exemplary Organisms
Fossil Record
Anatomy and Physiology
Evidence of Evolution
Class Chondrichthyes

Major Characteristics
Characteristics
External
-Dermal Denticles
-Found in every member of class Chondrichthyes
-Tough scales that act as skin
-Covered with hard enamel
- Function:
-Protection
-Eyes
-Found in every member of class Chondrichthyes.
-Important feature is tapetum lucidum
-Able to see in low light created by murky or deep waters
-Function:
-Sight


Internal
-Cartilage
-In every member of Class Chondrichthyes
-Flexible, lightweight material made of cells surrounded by tough fibers of protein
-Function:
-Support body structure

-Respiratory System
-All members of class Chondrichthyes breathe through five to seven pairs of gills.
-Extract dissolved oxygen from water
-Function:
-Provide the organism with oxygen to continue living
-Immune System
-All members of class Chondrichthyes have adaptive immune systems.
-Highly specialized, systematic cells and processes
-prevent pathogen growth
-Function:
-Protects against disease


Habitat
-Location
-Organisms belonging to class Chondrichthyes can be found in every major ocean on Earth.
-Primarily found in salt water
-Some can live in fresh water
-Requirements
-In order for class Chondrichthyes to successfully thrive in an environment there must be:
-Food
-Mating Partners
-Water
-Specific water temperatures vary between different species.
Behavior
-Mating
-Females in class Chondrichthyes release scents to attract males.
-During reproduction, males will bite the females to hold on and show affection.
-Males transfer sperm to fertilize the female egg through its claspers.
-Social
-Most organisms in class Chondrichthyes are asocial.
-Travel and hunt by themselves
-Except some hammerheads and certain manta rays
-They travel in groups.
-Obtaining food
-Most organisms in class Chondrichthyes eat prey by either suction feeding or ram feeding.
-Suction feeding: sucking fluid containing prey into the predator's mouth
-Ram feeding: As the predator moves forward it opens its mouth taking in both water and prey.
Great White Shark
(
Carcharodon carcharias
)
-Habitat
-Found in coastal waters in every major ocean
-Most commonly sighted around Australia, South Africa, California, and Mexico.
-Body
-The average length of an adult is fifteen feet.
-Torpedo-shaped
-Powerful tail
-Three-hundred serrated, triangular teeth that are arranged in several rows
-Upper gray body to blend in with the sea floor
-White underbelly
-Behavior
-Similar to a serial killer when hunting for prey
-Lurk out of sight to observe their prey,hunt strategically, and learn from previous attempts
-Naturally curious
-Uses its teeth the same way humans use hands


Zebra Shark
(
Stegostoma fasciatum
)
-Habitat
-Found in warmer coastal waters and around tropical coral reefs
-Most commonly found in the Indian and South Pacific oceans


-Body
-The average length of an adult ranges from five to eleven feet.
-Cylindrical-shape
-Prominent ridges on the sides
-Tail nearly as long as their body
-As juveniles, these sharks have dark bodies with yellowish stripes.
-As they grow older, the pattern changes to small dark spots on a grayish-tan background.

-Behavior
-Rest during the day and hunt during the night
-During the day, they are sluggish and docile
-Will attack if they feel threatened
Reef Manta Ray
(
Manta alfredi
)
-Habitat
-Commonly found in the warmer, tropical waters
-Typically around coral reefs
-Body
-The average length of an adult is ten to twelve feet.
-Broad head
-Triangular pectoral fins
-Horizontally flattened body
-White ventral surface
-Black back
-Tail lacks skeletal support


-Behavior
-Often visit cleaning stations
-External parasites are removed by reef fish.
-Some stay in groups with other manta rays.
-Rarely interact with each other

Taxonomy

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Chondrichthyes
Order:Orectolobiformes
Family:Stegostomatidae
Genus:Stegostoma
Species:fasciatum
Taxonomy

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Chondrichthyes
Order:Lamniformes
Family:Lamnidae
Genus:Carcharodon
Species:carcharias
Taxonomy

Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Chondrichthyes
Order:Myliobatiformes
Family:Myliobatidae
Genus:Manta
Species:alfredi
Systematics
- It groups organisms into different areas based on physical characteristics that are shared.
-The division is further divided into species.
-The more traits that are shared, the more closely related the evolutionary history is between organisms.
-Traits that are inherited from a common ancestor are shared traits.
-Groupings are often shown either by phylogenetic trees or cladograms.
-Similar organisms have homologous features.
-Inherited from a common ancestor
-Similarities are used to group organisms.
Systematic Show Relatedness
Phylogenetic Tree
Cladogram
Example
-The phylogenetic tree shows that
Squatina california
, pacific angelshark, and
Squatina dumeril
, sand devil, are more closely related to each other than to Squatina armata, chilean angelshark.
-Based off of DNA comparisons
-Great white shark is further down on the list;however, this picture does not extend down to great white shark's place.
-More dissimilar DNA pattern
-Still have similar parts to the DNA
-Great white shark and sand devil are not as closely related to one another.



Evidence
Carcharodon megalodon

-Depth
-Upper Layers of Tertiary limestone deposits
-Age
-Approximately 6 mya
-Tertiary Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Tertiary layer
-Dating
-Relative
Hybodus butleri)

-Dating
-Relative
-Age
-Approximately 190 mya
-Jurassic Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Jurassic Layer
-Depth
-Lower layer of Jurassic limestone deposits
Carcharodon carcharias

-Dating
-Relative
-Age
-Approximately 17 mya
-Tertiary Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Tertiary layer
-Depth
-Middle layers of Tertiary Limestone deposits
Cladoselache magnificus

-Age
-Approximately 370 mya
-Devonian Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Devonian layer
-Depth
-Upper layers of Devonian limestone deposits
-Dating
-Relative
Stethacanthus altonensis

-Age
-Approximately 355 mya
-Carboniferous Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Carboniferous layer
-Depth
-Lower layers of Carboniferous limestone deposits
-Dating
-Relative
-Depth
-Upper layers of Tertiary limestone deposits
-Age
-Approximately 2 mya
-Tertiary Period
-Strata
-Limestone
-Tertiary layer
-Dating
-Relative
Fossils
How Fossils show Relatedness and Evolution
-Differences
-
Stethacanthus altonensis
had an anvil-shape dorsal fin.
-Sharks today have triangular dorsal fins.
-
Carcharodon megalodon
had a much larger tooth than
Carcharodon carcharias.
-The differences show that organisms of class Chondrichthyes evolved to become better adapted to their environment.



-Similarities
-
Carcharodon megalodon
and
Carcharodon carcharias
both have triangular, sharp teeth.
-
Cladoselache magnificus
has a dorsal fin.
-All present day sharks have dorsal fins.
-
Urobatis halleri
has a tail.
-All present day rays and sharks have tails.
-Structures that are similar show that the traits were inherited.
-Shows relatedness
Similarities in Structures and Function
-Reproduction
-Females release scents to attract males.
-Male transfer sperm to fertilize the female's egg by using its claspers.
-Cartilage
-Used to support body structure
-Eyes
-Used for sight
-Pectoral Fin
-Used to help maintain depth in water
-Pelvic fin
-Used to help go up and down in the water, make turns, and stop
-Dorsal fin
-Used to stabilize the organism in the water

-Great White Shark
-Triangular, sharp teeth
-Reproduce
-Females produce eggs that hatch inside the body
-Cartilage body structure
-Eyes
-Pectoral fins
-Pelvic fins
-Dorsal fin
-Reef Manta Ray
-Dense, flattened teeth
-Reproduce
-Females produce eggs that hatch inside the body
-Cartilage body structure
-Eyes
-Pectoral fins
-Pelvic fins
-Dorsal fin
-Zebra Shark
-Triangular sharp teeth
-Reproduce
-Females lay eggs
-Cartilage body structure
-Eyes
-Pectoral fins
-Pelvic fins
-Dorsal fin
How Anatomy and Physiology show Relatedness and Evolution
-Relatedness
-Anatomical features shared by all organisms within the group
-The traits that were inherited.
-Pectoral fins
-Pelvic fins
-Teeth
-Common history of evolution
-Evolution
-Anatomical features that did not appear in all organisms within the group
-Body Types (torpedo, flattened, etc.)
-Organisms better adjusted to their environment
-Evolution occurs

-Teeth
-Found on all types sharks and rays
-Types of teeth vary with the types of food one eats.
-Dense, flattened: mollusk
-Sharp, triangular: mammal
-Reduced,little: plankton
-Used for eating
Embryology
Embryonic Development
-Sand Tiger Shark (Ovoviviparous)
-Stage 1:Develops head features, notochord, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and pectoral fin buds
-Stage 2:First and second dorsal, caudal, anal, and pelvic fin buds develop
-Stage 3:Reproductive organs develop
-Step 4:All fin buds develop further
-Step 5:Teeth develop
-Step 6:The embryo further develops its features
-Step 7:The embryo is ready to leave the mother
- 9 to 15 months
-Great White Shark (Ovoviviparous)
-Similar embryonic path until late stages
-Follows the same embryonic path except a few characteristics are different.
-The teeth of the great white shark and sand tiger shark develop differently.
-It takes a longer time for the great white shark to develop.
- 12 to 18 months

-Types of Shark and Ray Development
-Viviparity:The eggs hatch inside the female's body and the babies are fed by a placenta
-Transfers nourishment from the mother to the babies
-Oviparity:deposit eggs in the ocean
-Ovoviviparous:The eggs hatch inside the female's body and the babies are not fed by the placenta
-Leads to cannibalism during embryonic development
How Embryology supports Relatedness and Evolution
-Similarities
-Suggest a common ancestor
-Separate species that have similar developmental traits
-Inherited
-Great white shark and sand tiger have a similar embryonic development.
-Pectoral fins
-Dorsal fins
-Anal fins
-Pelvic fins
-Cardiovascular system
-Differences
-Show evolution
-Differences show how the organisms have evolved from their ancestor.
-Length of Development
-Size
-Shape

Chromosomal Analysis
-Figure C:Scalloped hammerhead
-86 Diploid
-43 Haploid
-Figure D:Blue shark
-86 Diploid
-43 Haploid
-Great White Shark
-82 Diploid
-41 Haploid
-Same chromosome numbers
-Similar to great white shark
-Both species have many similar chromosome structures.
-Read from left to right
-Figure C: Group 8 has slightly different shapes.
-Figure D: Groups 1 and 13 have slightly different shapes.



How Chromosomes support Relatedness and Evolution
-Similarities
-Species with closer numbers and size are more closely related.
-Show a common ancestry
-Scalloped hammerhead and blue shark are closely related.
-Also, related to the great white shark


-Differences
-Variations of chromosome shapes and numbers between species
-Organisms adapt to better suit their environment.
-Differences in the chromosomes between blue shark and scalloped hammerhead
-Causes:
-Mutations in genes are supported by DNA, which makes up chromosomes.
-Adaptions
Chromosome Analysis
Support of Darwin's Theories
-Fossil Record
-Similarities in structure between ancient and modern sharks and rays
-The relatedness shows how sharks and rays descended from a common ancestor.
-Fins
-Sharks and rays today show how the class Chondrichthyes gradually changed over time.
-Developed different variations
-Teeth
-Size




-Anatomy and Physiology
-Similarities in structure and function show how sharks and rays descended from a common ancestor.
-Fins
-Different variations of structures show these gradual changes to be better adapted to the environment in which the organisms live.
-Teeth
-Color
-Size
-Embroyology
-Similarities in embryo development show that sharks and rays evolved from a common ancestor.
-In the beginning, most organisms in class Chondrichthyes appear the same; however, they become increasingly different over time.
-Great white sharks and tiger sharks' first few months of development are extremely similar.
-Chromosomal Analysis
-Similarities of structure and number show relatedness to a common ancestor.
-Different chromosome numbers show that sharks and rays gradually changed through time from their ancestor.
-Great White Shark has 82 chromosomes (diploid)
-Blue Shark has 86 chromosomes (diploid)
-Fossil Record
-Shows that sharks and rays changed from their ancestors through time.
-Evolved to have better variations of traits
-Modern Sharks do not have anvil-shaped dorsal fins.
-Some prehistoric sharks had anvil shaped dorsal fins.
-Not favored
-Not frequent
Ayden Loughney
-Anatomy and Physiology
-Similarities between organisms support common ancestry.
-Variations show that organisms adapted better to their environments.
-Better adapted, better surviving
-All sharks and rays have teeth
-Triangular shaped teeth for eating mammals
-Feature favored in certain environments
-Appears frequently
-Denser teeth for eating crustaceans
-Feature favored in certain environments
-Appears frequently
-Chromosomal Analysis
-Shows adaptions and evolution in chromosomes number and structure.
- Blue Shark and Scalloped Hammerhead have similar chromosome numbers and structure.
- Same chromosome number
- Descending order from larger chromosomes to smaller chromosomes
- Similarities in chromosomes between the organisms support common ancestry.
-Came from common ancestor
- Differences between the organisms show that they adapted to their environment.
-Favored



-Embryology
-Similarities in early development support a common ancestry between organisms in class Chondrichthyes.
-Differences in later development show how sharks and rays acquired adaptions of traits that are shared as they become better suited to their environment.
-The development of great white sharks and sand tiger sharks are similar in the beginning; however, they grow apart in later development.
-Organisms better suited to their environment will produce more offspring with certain traits from their parents.
-Sharp teeth for eating mammals
-Favored
-Appears frequently
Bibliography
Information
Urobatis halleri
Pictures
-Fins
-Pectoral Fin
-Function:
-Used to help maintain depth in water
-Pelvic fin
-Function:
-Used to help go up and down in the water, make turns, and stop
-Dorsal fin
-Function:
-Used to stabilize the organism in the water

Beginning stages of development
Middle stages of development
Later stages of development
Picture of great white shark
Drawing of sand tiger shark
Similar look
Full transcript