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on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Timeline

Conflict in 1948

Jews VS Arabs
May 1921- Jews were attacked in Jaffa, causing an outburst in violence.

1922- Jewish population in Palestine had grown, discontented Arabs

1929-Clashes began between the Arabs and the Jews, resulting in many deaths

Arabs went crazy and broke laws

Split the State?
July 1937 British suggested breaking area into two states, one Arab and one Jewish-was rejected by Arabs and Jews

UN suggested again to divide up the state, this time the Jews agreed to it, but Arabs rejected it-was never implemented

Hostility grew as US supported Jewish refugees and the deaths of British soldiers

Arabs and Jews prepared for inevitable war

War of 1948
The Jews wanted a Jewish state in Palestine

Palestinians wanted to make an independent Arab state

British wanted to maintain influence for access to Suez Canal and Haifa pipelines to build up the post-war economy

Zionist violent against British troops

Same time when Zionists appealed to the USA for support

British public opinion against keeping the British Mandate for Palestine

Divided Ottoman Empire between Britain, and France through direct and indirect control
-International administration

Division of countries how they saw fit

-Indirect control : adding French/British advisers to the
Confederation of Arab States
-Palestine and Holy cities taken care of internationally

Hussein the Sharif of Mecca promised support from British if Arabs incited mutiny in the Ottoman army

Arab revolt started on June 10th, 1916

September principal towns of Hejaz were ‘in Arab hands’

1916 the Ottomans began to give in to the Arab revolt efforts.

July 1917 Arabs captured the Red Sea port of Aqaba and took over Palestine

October 1918 Faisal (Hussein’s son) liberated Syria

Timeline of Conflict
Start the Solution
Israelis keep the borders they won

Access to Jerusalem is open

Access to Israel from the outside is limited

Suez Canal is opened for free trade- monitored by the UN

Israel is opened up as free access

Immigration opened up to Arabs with a process

Keep it Stable
UN oversees to ensure agreements are not broken

Situation revisited/revised every 7 years

Palestinian advisers/ambassadors in the Israeli gov’t

Foreign intervention run through UN
The End Goal
An independent Israeli country

Stable Middle-East

Free practice of religion

Arabs, Israelis and all others treated equally
Order of HOW WE DO IT
League of Arab States wanted to re-establish Palestine as a unitary state

Mid May-June: Israelis pushed back Arab Invasion. UN sent mediator Count Folke Bernadotte.

July 8-18 First truce broken, fighting, second truce

Oct. 15-July 20 1949: Several small Israeli offensives

Outcome: Large success for Israelis, failure for Arab States.
Borders in 1949
End of 1948 War: borders were 50% bigger than the UN's earlier proposal.
Gaza Strip-Egypt
West Bank-Jordan
Arab Revolt
Count Folke Bernadotte and UN Peacekeeping
Appointed UN mediator
Attempted truce and mediation between 8 and 18 July
Second truce attempt July 18, assassinated September 16 by underground Israeli group.
UN Peacekeeping was not well received on either side.
Mandate System
After WWI, non-independent countries were split into 3 categories:

A: Countries near independence
B: Countries within reach of independence
C: Countries far from independence

Mandatory Powers set as 'babysitters'

Palestinian Case: Difficult to sort out, many people wanted it, had been promised several different ways. Tangled with the Hussein-McMahon correspondence.
Mandatory Powers
Britain gave up responsibility of Palestine to the UN in 1947
Britain threatened to terminate the Palestinian Mandate on May 15 1948

Mandatory powers: Countries assigned to oversee mandated countries, overseen by the L of N.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
Middle East was important in WWI

Ottoman Empire entered war on November 14, 1914 with Germany

Were a problem for the Triple Entente

British began promising as the Ottoman Empire began to come apart when they entered the war

World War One
Industrial Revolution-> Western World surpassed Middle East

Oil was discovered in 1907, became vital for Western World

European involvement began not long after turn of the century
Israel was the home of two groups for thousands of years

Why Middle East?
Balfour Declaration
"Arab Discontent." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"UN Partition of Palestine." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.

"Flags of the World." World Flags. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.

"Voices - The Murder of Count Folke Bernadotte." Voices - The Murder of Count Folke Bernadotte. Scottish Friends of Palestine, 18 Sept. 2008. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Milestone Documents. "Balfour Declaration." Accessed September 27, 2013. http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/balfour-declaration/text
"Armistice Lines, 1949". 2004. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "MEFacts.com". Web. 26 September 2013
"Israel Borders after 1948 War of Independence." Israel Borders after 1948 War of Independence. Palestine Facts, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
Habibi, Mariam, Peyman Jafari, Richard Jones-Nerzic, David Keys, and David Smith. History of Europe and the Middle East: Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.
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