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Transcript of Timeline
Conflict in 1948
Jews VS Arabs
May 1921- Jews were attacked in Jaffa, causing an outburst in violence.
1922- Jewish population in Palestine had grown, discontented Arabs
1929-Clashes began between the Arabs and the Jews, resulting in many deaths
Arabs went crazy and broke laws
Split the State?
July 1937 British suggested breaking area into two states, one Arab and one Jewish-was rejected by Arabs and Jews
UN suggested again to divide up the state, this time the Jews agreed to it, but Arabs rejected it-was never implemented
Hostility grew as US supported Jewish refugees and the deaths of British soldiers
Arabs and Jews prepared for inevitable war
War of 1948
The Jews wanted a Jewish state in Palestine
Palestinians wanted to make an independent Arab state
British wanted to maintain influence for access to Suez Canal and Haifa pipelines to build up the post-war economy
Zionist violent against British troops
Same time when Zionists appealed to the USA for support
British public opinion against keeping the British Mandate for Palestine
Divided Ottoman Empire between Britain, and France through direct and indirect control
Division of countries how they saw fit
-Indirect control : adding French/British advisers to the
Confederation of Arab States
-Palestine and Holy cities taken care of internationally
Hussein the Sharif of Mecca promised support from British if Arabs incited mutiny in the Ottoman army
Arab revolt started on June 10th, 1916
September principal towns of Hejaz were ‘in Arab hands’
1916 the Ottomans began to give in to the Arab revolt efforts.
July 1917 Arabs captured the Red Sea port of Aqaba and took over Palestine
October 1918 Faisal (Hussein’s son) liberated Syria
Timeline of Conflict
Start the Solution
Israelis keep the borders they won
Access to Jerusalem is open
Access to Israel from the outside is limited
Suez Canal is opened for free trade- monitored by the UN
Israel is opened up as free access
Immigration opened up to Arabs with a process
Keep it Stable
UN oversees to ensure agreements are not broken
Situation revisited/revised every 7 years
Palestinian advisers/ambassadors in the Israeli gov’t
Foreign intervention run through UN
The End Goal
An independent Israeli country
Free practice of religion
Arabs, Israelis and all others treated equally
Order of HOW WE DO IT
League of Arab States wanted to re-establish Palestine as a unitary state
Mid May-June: Israelis pushed back Arab Invasion. UN sent mediator Count Folke Bernadotte.
July 8-18 First truce broken, fighting, second truce
Oct. 15-July 20 1949: Several small Israeli offensives
Outcome: Large success for Israelis, failure for Arab States.
Borders in 1949
End of 1948 War: borders were 50% bigger than the UN's earlier proposal.
Count Folke Bernadotte and UN Peacekeeping
Appointed UN mediator
Attempted truce and mediation between 8 and 18 July
Second truce attempt July 18, assassinated September 16 by underground Israeli group.
UN Peacekeeping was not well received on either side.
After WWI, non-independent countries were split into 3 categories:
A: Countries near independence
B: Countries within reach of independence
C: Countries far from independence
Mandatory Powers set as 'babysitters'
Palestinian Case: Difficult to sort out, many people wanted it, had been promised several different ways. Tangled with the Hussein-McMahon correspondence.
Britain gave up responsibility of Palestine to the UN in 1947
Britain threatened to terminate the Palestinian Mandate on May 15 1948
Mandatory powers: Countries assigned to oversee mandated countries, overseen by the L of N.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
Middle East was important in WWI
Ottoman Empire entered war on November 14, 1914 with Germany
Were a problem for the Triple Entente
British began promising as the Ottoman Empire began to come apart when they entered the war
World War One
Industrial Revolution-> Western World surpassed Middle East
Oil was discovered in 1907, became vital for Western World
European involvement began not long after turn of the century
Israel was the home of two groups for thousands of years
Why Middle East?
"Arab Discontent." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"UN Partition of Palestine." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
"Flags of the World." World Flags. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
"Voices - The Murder of Count Folke Bernadotte." Voices - The Murder of Count Folke Bernadotte. Scottish Friends of Palestine, 18 Sept. 2008. Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Milestone Documents. "Balfour Declaration." Accessed September 27, 2013. http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/balfour-declaration/text
"Armistice Lines, 1949". 2004. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "MEFacts.com". Web. 26 September 2013
"Israel Borders after 1948 War of Independence." Israel Borders after 1948 War of Independence. Palestine Facts, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2013.
Habibi, Mariam, Peyman Jafari, Richard Jones-Nerzic, David Keys, and David Smith. History of Europe and the Middle East: Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.