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Mendel and His Peas

History of the science of genetics and heredity
by

Brooke Fox

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Mendel and His Peas

Who Was Gregor Mendel?
Introduction
Heredity
- the passing of traits from parent to offspring

Heredity is more difficult than you might think
You might have curly hair even if both of your parents have straight hair
You might have blue eyes even though your parents both have brown eyes
150 years ago, Gregor Mendel performed important experiments - His discoveries helped scientists begin to find answers to these questions
Objectives:
Describe how Mended used scientific method to discover the principles of dominant and recessive genes.
What Mendel Discovered
Mendel used ordinary garden peas to research his topic for a variety of reasons including: they grow quickly, there are many different kinds, and they
self-pollinate
.
Mendel's First Experiment
Mendel crossed pea plants to study seven different characteristics
In each cross, Mendel used plants that were true-breeding for different traits for different characteristics
Example: He crossed plants that had white flowers with plants that had purple flowers
Mendel's Second Experiment
Mendel allowed the first-generation plants to self-pollinate.
The recessive trait for white flowers reappeared in the second generation.
Mendel decided to count the number of plants with each trait that turned up in the second generation
Mendel and His Peas
The History of Genetic Research
Why Did He Use Self-Pollinating Plants?
When the ovule and pollen from the anther combine from the same plant they combine to make a new plant.
This way he grew true-breeding plants.
For example: true-breeding plants with purple flowers always have offspring with purple flowers.
Pea plants can also cross-pollinate - pollen from one plant fertilizes the ovule of a different flower.
This can happen several ways: carried by insects or by wind
What do you think his results were?
The offspring from this cross are called first generation plants.
All of the first generation plants were purple flowers.
In each of his tests, one trait was always present in the first generation, and the other trait seemed to disappear.
Mendel chose to call the trait that appeared

the
dominant

trait
and the trait that disappeared

the
recessive trait
Calculate Mendel's Results into ratios
Exit Question
Explain the difference between self-pollination and and cross-pollination
WI State Standards

A.8.5 - Show how models and explanations, based on systems, were changed as new evidence accumulated (the effects of constancy, evolution, change, and measurement should all be part of these explanations)
B.8.1 - Describe how scientific knowledge and concepts have changed over time in the earth and space, life and environmental, and physical science.
B.8.2 - Identify and describe major changes that have occurred over in conceptual models and explanations in the earth and space, life and environmental, and physical sciences and identify the people, cultures, and conditions that led to these developments.
B.8.3 - Explain how general rules of science apply to the development and use of evidence in science investigations, model making, and applications.
B.8.4 - Describe types of reasoning and evidence used outside of science to draw conclusions about the natural world.
B.8.5 - Explain ways in which science knowledge is shared, checked, and extended, and show how these processes change over time.
F.8.4 - Investigate and explain that heredity is comprised of the characteristic traits found in genes within the cell of an organism.
F.8.5 - Show how different structures both reproduce and pass on characteristics of their group.
What do I need today?
iPad
Colored pencils, markers, etc.
Glove, Hat, Scarf Activity - Worksheet
CREATE A NEW DOCUMENT IN YOUR GOOGLE DRIVE FOLDER, SCIENCE UNIT 3 - NAME IT THE HISTORY OF GENETIC RESEARCH
Discussion
1) Were any two outfits exactly alike? Did you see all possible combinations? Explain your answer.

2) Choose a partner. Using your outfits, how many different combinations could you make by giving a third person one hat, one glove, and one scarf? How is this process like parents passing traits to their children?

3) After completing this activity, why do you think parents often have children who look very different from each other?
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