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Transcript of The Family
Section 3 Blended and Single-Parent Families Childless and Dual-Employed Marriages Single Life and Boomerang Kids Family Violence Romantic Love and Marriage Divorce Nature of American Family Functionalism Symbolic Interactionism Conflict Theory Theoretical Perspectives
Section 2 How does the Family socialize?
By being a role model and through training and education, the family continues the process of socialization in each new stage of development. How does conflict theory explain gender relationships in the family?
According to conflict theorists, males are more dominant and in control, while females on the other hand have been expected to be submissive helpers.
Males work outside of the home for finances to support family
Women remain at home and prepare meals, keep house, and care for children. Hows does the family help develop a persons self-concept
Interaction with adults help children acquire human personality and social characteristics.
According to symbolic interactionists relationships within the family are constantly changing. 83% of men & women rated "being in love" as most vital reason to marry.
Many reasons to marry
Enter powerful family
Advance a career
Strongest motivations for marriage Divorce Rate = the number of divorces per year for every one thousand members of population; rising Affects all members of the family
Almost 1/4 of adults in the U.S. report having been physically abused as children
One of every four girls and one in ten boys are victims of sexual agression
Abusers of sexual abuse are usually someone the child trusts - parent, friend of family, child-care giver, brother
At least four million women are battered by their husbands annually and over four thousand women each year are beaten to death Blended Family = Family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has been married before and has a child or children from previous marriage
Not based strictly on blood relationships
Possible for child to have 8 grandparents
About 32% of households
Major problems faced:
Step children's antagonism
Unclear roles Around 19 percent of women did not have children in 2002 compared to 15 percent in 1970 Family and Marriage Across Cultures
Section 1 What is the Socioemotional Function of the family?
A Family is generally the one place individuals are unconditionally accepted.
Socioemotional Maintenance is the provision of acceptance and support. What is the reproduction function of the Family?
Family function is important in many cultures and religions
Many places for example, the Punjab region of North India, view children as an economic necessity How does family transmit social status?
Those with parents with a better high paying job are more likely to have their own children go to college and graduate high school than blue-collar working families. How do the ideas of feminist writers fit with conflict theory?
Feminists are writers and activists who organize on behalf of women's rights and interests.
Many feminists today believe that family structure is the source of the inequality between men and women in society. Key to understanding behavior with in family lies in the interaction among family members and the meanings that members assign to these interactions. Having children comes with a new set of aquirements. Parental views may differ on child-rearing practices, number of children desired, and education for the children.
Situation is even more complex by the new member of the family, who must also become part of the interaction patterns. They have more similarities than differences.
The American Family tend to follow a pattern,
Nuclear ( Family only includes set of parents and children)
Bilateral (Trace lineage & pass inheritance equally through both parents)
Democratic (Share decision making equally)
Neolocal (Each family lives apart from other families)
Monogamous (Each includes only one husband and one wife at a time) Defining the Family Family- a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption
Many laws define the term,
1.) Zoning laws
2.)Laws involving insurance
3.) Social security programs
Has the greatest impact on individual behavior
• Family orientation- the family we are born into or the family of birth
1.) Gave the child an ascribed status in the community
• Family procreation- is established upon marriage
• Marriage- a legal union between a man and a woman based on mutual rights and obligations •Nuclear family- the smallest group of individuals that can be called a family, is composed of a parent or parents and any children
•Extended family- consists of two or more adult generations of the same family whose members share economic resources and live in the same household.
1.) Can contain relatives such as grandparents, children, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, and cousins •Development of agriculture and industry
•As societies moved from agricultural economies to industrialized ones, the extended family was slowly replaced by the nuclear family Two Basic Types of Family How did Family structures develop? Family plays many roles, including socializing the young, providing social and emotional support, managing reproduction, regulating sexual activity, transmitting social status, and serving as an economic center. Focus on the way family members compete and cooperate. Most family structure throughout history has been patriarchal and patrilineal. Changes in Marriage and Family
Section 4 Americans believe that marriage based on romantic love cannot last.
More accurate to say, marriage based only on romantic love is almost sure to fail. Marriage Rate = number of marriages per year for every thousand members of the population
It has fluctuated since 1940 in the U.S. According to "Making Your Marriage Work" 1. Use humor and laughter to keep things in perspective and to avoid boredom and isolation
2. Provide nurturance and comfort to each other
3. Be realistic
4. Do not take one another for granted
5. Communication skills
6. Regular Meetings (AKA: Dates)
7. Be complimentary
8. Show appreciation
9. Satisfy each partner's need for dependency and offer continuing encouragement and support
10. Keep alive the romantic, idealized images of falling in love, while facing the sober realities of the changes wrought by time Researchers found certain pattern behaviors usually signaled impending collapse in marriage
1. When either partner - although it is most often male - withdraws from conflict
2. Tendency to escalate conflicts in the face of disagreement and the inability to stop fights before they get ugly
3. Tendency to invalidate the relationship by hurling insults at each other Causes of Divorce
Age: Later the age, the lower the chance
Years married: longer the marriage, lower the chance
Nature and Quality: More respect and flexibility = lower chance of divorce How do larger forces in society affect marriages
1. Divorce rates rises during economic prosperity and decreases when times are hard
2. Baby boomer generation were more likely to leave unhappy marriages than to stay
3. Increasing financial independence of women
4. Values and attitudes about marriage and divorce are changing Consequences of Divorce Loss of friendships and increased isolation and loneliness
Women suffer 30 to 40 percent decline in standard living on average
Men experience a 10 percent increase in average income following divorce
Children suffer the most from divorce emotionally and socially One out of four families is a single-parent family
Greatest proportion of these households headed by women
Only 17% are in male-headed household Cohabitation and Same-Sex
Domestic Partners Adolescents = youths from the ages of 12 to 17
Adolescents who live with one parent or with a stepparent have much higher rates of deviant behavior
Delinquency, drug and alcohol abuse, teenage pregnancy Single working parents must struggle to provide their children with time, attention and guidance that two parents can give
Finding adequate housing and child care in a suitable neighborhood is often very difficult No longer automatically accepted that having children is primary reason for marriage
Some have elected to pursue personal or career goals instead Research shows that couples who by choice have no children appear to be happier and more satisfied with their marriages and lives Dual-employed Marriages = Marriages in
which both spouses work outside the home Cohabitation = Marriagelike living arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage
Over one-fourth of adults in the U.W. have cohabited
Has risen among people of all ages and marital statuses
Should be viewed as a realistic and fair way to provide for each other's reasonable needs if things in a relationship don't work out as planned & to restrict confusion and anxiety while the relationship is working Estimated gays make up about 10% of U.S. population
In 2000, U.S. Census estimated 6% of household were same-sex partners
Same-sex unions are certain to remain controversial for some time Increasing number of Americans are choosing to remain single
More single Americans are choosing to remain unmarried, pursing careers, or raising children from a former marriage
Implication is that many young adults wish to expand the period of "freedom" after leaving home and are unwilling to rush into the responsibilities of early marriage and parenthood Boomerang Kids = Adult children who return to the home of origin or who continue to live with parents
More than 26 percent of adults eighteen to thirty-four years old now live with one or both parents
High cost of living outstrips their earning capacity