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Rock Cycle

Rock Cycle

Julie Bradley

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle



Most rocks are made of minerals.
Rocks can be put into three basic rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. How a rock is formed determines which group it is placed in.
The Rock Cycle is a
continuous change of rocks
from one type to another.
70% of all rocks on Earth are sedimentary
Rich in fossils
Formed when flat layers of sediment are pressed together by:
gluing of sediments by minerals dissolved in water (cementation)
tight pressure placed on lower layers of sediment by the weight of layers above (compaction)
Most form under water
Often has layers, flat or curved
Usually composed of pieces cemented or pressed together
Has great color variety
Particle size may be the same or vary
Usually has pores between pieces
Heat and Pressure
Weathering and

Compaction and

Heat and Pressure
Weathering and
Weathering and

Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma slowly cools deep under Earth's surface.
Extrusive igneous rocks from when lava quickly cools near or above Earth's surface.
Igneous rocks often contain crystals (large or small, depending on cooling speed)
Rocks may undergo a process several times or rocks may change between two forms without ever becoming all three forms.
Oldest type of all rocks
Means "fire rock"
Forms by
cooling magma underground (pockets of magma cool slowly)
cooling lava above ground (volcanoes erupt and lava cools quickly)
Molten rock beneath the earth's crust
Magma is called lava when it reaches the earth's surface.
Process when a solid becomes a liquid
Magma or lava cools and becomes solid
Small pieces of rocks, shells, or the remains of plants and animals that have been carried along and deposited by wind, water, or ice.
Breaking down of rocks into smaller particles by the action of water, the atmosphere, and organisms
Hardening of sediments
Process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, or gravity and transported and deposited in other locations
Metamorphic means "change" and "form"
Form deep inside Earth when existing rocks (sedimentary or igneous rocks) are subjected to extreme heat and pressure
May have alternate bands of light and dark minerals
May have layers of visible crystals
Usually made of mineral crystals of different sizes
May have bent or curved foliation (lines or layers)
The effect of a force applied to a surface
Energy transferred from one system to another by thermal interaction
Heat inside the Earth comes from magma.
Pressure comes from layers of rock piled on top of layers and layers of rocks beneath Earth's surface.
Heat inside the Earth comes from magma.
Pressure comes from layers of rock piled on top of layers and layers of rocks beneath Earth's surface.
Anything can happen within the rock cycle!
Click along the other arrows to discover the different paths rocks can take through the
rock cycle.
The study of the Earth and Rocks
The remains of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age
Full transcript