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Symbiotic Relationships

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by

Mriganka Mandal

on 6 June 2014

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Transcript of Symbiotic Relationships

1. Cleaning Shrimp
and fish at coral reefs
Cleaning shrimp interact with these fish by eating up the parasites on their bodies. The shrimp benefit because they get a free meal, and the fish benefit because they get a thorough cleaning. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both animals benefit. However, sometimes the shrimp will “cheat” and chew off mucus from the fish which is an example of PARASITISM. In this scenario, the shrimp are benefiting but the fish aren't.
Symbiotic Relationships
By: Mriganka Mandal
2. Hermit Crabs and shells
3. Plovers
and crocodiles
Plovers (specifically the "Egyptian Plover" breed) interact with crocodiles by hopping in their mouth and eating the leftover food remnants stuck in their teeth. The plovers benefit because they get a free meal (sound familiar?) and the crocodiles benefit because they get their teeth clean. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both animals benefit.
4. Oxpeckers and rhinoceroses
5. Gall insects and trees
Gall insects interact with (oak) trees by laying their eggs in them. The larvae of the insect rapidly feed on the tree's flesh. In order to keep the insect toxins away, the oak will develop a round lump of tissue (called a gall). Eventually, the fully grown insects eat their way out of the tree. The gall insects benefit because they get a free home and free food, whereas the oak doesn't benefit- it gets hurt! This is an example of PARASITISM because one organism benefits at the cost of the other. Regardless, the organism that benefits keeps the benefactor alive, not dead .
6. Egrets and hippos
Egrets interact with hippos by eating up the parasites on their bodies. The egrets benefit because they get food, and the hippos benefit because they get cleaned. There is also a hidden relationship, though. Egrets are very alert birds, so if they spy danger they react very quickly. Hippos benefit from this because they get a head start in escaping predators or other dangerous things (the egrets are riding on their backs, so they know very quickly). This is an example of MUTUALISM because both organisms benefit.
7. Honeyguide birds and ratels
Honeyguide birds interact with ratels (honey badgers) by directing them towards a source of honey by shaking its tail. When they finally find the hive, the ratel tears it apart and devours the sweet honey inside. (Due to his thick pelt, he is protected from the bees.) Then, the ratel leaves the wax behind for the honeyguide. The honeyguide gets its favorite food, wax, and the ratel gets his honey. This is and example of MUTUALISM because both organisms benefit.
8. Sea anemones and clownfish
Sea anemones interact with clownfish by protecting them against predators. Clownfish protect sea anemones too because they scare off its main predator, the butterfly fish. If one were to remove the cf. from the s.a., they would find that butterfly fish would come and devour it. Likewise, the clownfish would be eaten by other predators. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both are benefiting.
9. Spider crabs and algae
Spider crabs interact with algae by using the algae for protection. The crab takes bits of algae and places it on its back. The spider crabs benefit because they can use the algae to to blend with the ocean floor and protect themselves from predators. This is an example of COMMENSALISM because because one organism benefits while the other has no reaction whatsoever. However, this can also be interpreted as MUTUALISM because one could say that the algae also benefits by having a nice habitat to grow in.
10. Bacteria and humans
11. Goby fish and shrimp
12. Torsalo flies and humans
13. Sharks and remora fish
14. Ants and Acadia trees
(Bullhorn Acacia) ants interact with Acadia trees by protecting them against unwanted invaders such as other ants, animals, and even other plants. They hide in the tree's thorns, and if an organism comes too close, they release an alarm pheromone in the air. If the organism continues to intrude, the ants will file out in large masses and sting them. They will also strangle plants growing nearby. In return, the Acacia excrete protein and nectar for them. The ants benefit because they get food, and the Acadia trees benefit because they get protection. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both beings benefit.
15. Ambrosia beetles and fungi
Ambrosia beetles interact with fungi by "cultivating" it in a dead tree and then eating it. The beetles get food, and the fungi get a nice place to live. In my opinion, this is an example of mutualism because both organisms benefit.
16. Orchids and tropical rainforest trees
Orchids interact with tropical rainforest trees by growing on them. The orchids benefit because they have a nice location to grow in (up in the air with plenty of sunlight). This is an example of COMMENSALISM because one organism is benefiting while nothing is happening to the other.
New Relationships # 1:
MUTUALISM
New Relationships # 2:
PARASITISM
New Relationship # 3:
COMMENSALISM

Hermit crabs interact with (snail) shells by living in them until they grow out. Then, they move out and find a new one. This is an example of COMMENSALISM because one organism benefits, and the other isn't affected at all. This is because nothing happens to the shell or the snail because the snail has already moved out or died. On the other hand, the hermit crab gets a new home.
Oxpeckers interact with rhinos by eating up the parasites on its body. The oxpeckers benefit because they get food, and the rhinos benefit by getting a cleaning of their parasites. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both organisms benefit. However, research has shown that the oxpeckers will eat up scabs and flesh from the rhinos. This is an example of PARASITISM because one organism benefits while the other suffers.
This is a very special relationship because it is happening in your body right now as you read this! It can be interpreted in many different ways, though.
THE
END

Goby fish interact with shrimp by protecting them from predators. The shrimp builds a burrow for the two and takes care of it. The fish stand outside on guard. If it sees a predator, it alerts the shrimp by flicking its tail- and the shrimp darts into the burrow! During the fish's reproduction time, the shrimp lets the fish use the burrow for a nursery to store its eggs. The fish gets a home, and the shrimp gets protection. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both organisms benefit.
The torsalo fly (a.k.a. the botfly) interacts with humans by using his/her body as a nursery. After catching a mosquito, the mother botfly releases her eggs on it. When the mosquito "bites" a human, the eggs enter the puncture area. There, they hatch and nourish themselves by feeding on their human host. Eventually, they become adults and break out of the human's skin. Meanwhile, the human suffers by going through extreme pain and discomfort as well as tissue loss. This is an example of PARASITISM because one organism benefits, but the other suffers. WARNING: IF YOU GET SQUEAMISH WHILE LOOKING AT
GROSS
BUGS,
SKIP THE NEXT SLIDE
!!!!!!
Remora fish interact with sharks by munching on their leftover food and parasites. The remora fish get food, and the shark gets clean. As a result, the remora fish travel everywhere the sharks go (usually directly underneath their bellies). This is an example of MUTUALISM because both organisms benefit.
1. Bees and flowers
Bees interact with flowers by pollinating them. The bees get to collect nectar to make their own food, and the flowers get pollinated. This is a very important step because without being pollinated, the flowers wouldn't be able to reproduce. Likewise, the bees would starve if they didn't get nectar.
2. Humans and apple trees
Humans (or any other animal, for that example) interact with apple trees by eating their fruits. When they do, they indirectly spread the seeds (hopefully in the ground). This causes the apple tree seeds to grow far away from the parent plant without overcrowding. This is an example of MUTUALISM because both organisms are benefiting. (The human gets a free snack.)
3. Animals and plants
This is probably an extremely obvious one! The animals interact with the plants by inhaling oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. The plants "inhale" CO2 (I can't type subscripts) and they exhale oxygen. Without them, we wouldn't exist! This is an example of MUTUALISM because both animals are benefiting.
<-- LOOK!
1. Mutualism- Most types of bacteria in our bodies follow this because they help us break down our food. They also protect us against harmful microbes that attack us. It's a win-win situation!
2. Commensalism- Some bacteria just live in our bodies without doing any harm. This is commensalism because one side benefits, whereas the other doesn't react at all.
3. Parasitism- Some pathogenic bacteria types will exploit the cells in a human's body for its own benefit (survival) . On the other hand, the cells are seriously weakened.
1. Tapeworms and humans
Tapeworms interact with humans by using them as a nursery for its larvae. After the human consumes the eggs (which can be obtained by eating undercooked/raw meat), the eggs hatch and absorb its nutrients. The human suffers by feeling extreme pain in the stomach area, loss of nutrients, and worms in the feces.
2. Lice and humans
Lice interact with humans by hopping on their scalp and sucking their blood as nourishment. The human suffers extreme itchiness on their scalp due to the blood loss. They can also grow in the armpits. (Ewww!)
3.Hemlock Wooly Adelgids and hemlock trees
The H.W.as. affect the hemlock tree by drinking its sap and then injecting a toxin into it. After this, the hemlock tree begins to lose its needles. If left untreated, it will die in four to ten years. Meanwhile, the adelgid takes advantage of the dying tree and uses it as a giant nest for her eggs. After it dies, the bugs have no more use for it, so they move on to another tree.
<--Fuzzy eggs!
1. Birds and trees
NOTE: This only applies to birds that live in nests on tree boughs. The birds get a safe place to live, sheltered by leaves, whereas the trees are left perfectly unharmed (unless the bird is really fat and the tree's branch breaks off, which RARELY EVER HAPPENS).
2. (Dead) trees and mushrooms
Mushrooms interact with dead trees by decomposing them and (basically) returning it back to the soil. It also uses the tree's nutrients for itself to survive. The mushroom is benefiting because it gets food, and nothing happens to the dead tree, because...well, it's dead!
3. Mites on beetles
NOTE: This only applies to mites that use their beetles ONLY for transportation, and not for food.
These mites get to hitch a ride on a beetle for no pay whatsoever, and nothing happens to the beetle at all. (Sometimes they don't even notice that they're there!)
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