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London Dispersion Forces
Transcript of London Dispersion Forces
(Induced Dipole Attraction)
What do these forces do?
London dispersion forces are the weakest intermolecular force and they cause nonpolar substances to condense to liquids and also freeze into solids with low temperatures.
How easily a nuclei and its electrons can be displaced from their average positions
Bigger molecules have greater polarizabilities because of their higher number of electrons, so..
The cylinder shape of n-Pentane molecules allow for more contact with each other than the sphere shape of neopentane molecules.
Present between ALL molecules, polar or nonpolar
Present when the molecules are almost touching
London dispersion forces are weak and only form dipoles for a short period of time
Fritz London's Discovery
In 1930, London realized that the motion of electrons in an atom can create an instantaneous dipole moment when its electrons are distributed randomly around the nucleus.
London dispersion forces tend to be
- stronger between easily polarized molecules
- weaker between molecules that are not easily polarized
Dispersion forces increase in strength with increasing molecular weight