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PRESENT TENSES

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sade bagudi

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of PRESENT TENSES

PRESENT TENSES
THE TWO AND ONLY
JUDE BAGAEEN
SALMA SAUDI

PRESENT SIMPLE
FORM:
(verb+ s/es In third person)

Simple present has two forms
USES
present continuous
1-simple or V form
Ex. They come, we go ,you live, the boys run)

2- V-s form
Ex. He goes, she comes, he lives. The boy runs)
The simple present tense in which the condition or situation it refers to is true at that present moment.
To state repeated actions
To state scheduled events in the near future
Examples:-
I play tennis
Does he play tennis?
She always forgets her purse.
Ex.
The train leaves tonight at 6 pm
The party starts at 8 o'clock .
When do we board the plane?

To state non-continuous verbs
Ex.
I am here now
Do you have your passport with you?
He needs help right now

To state permanent truths and generalization.(generalized)
Ex.
most people dream some times
Rivers contain fish water
Experience teaches us many things

To make statements of present facts (specified)
Ex.
Alaska is the largest state in USA
The Olympic games draw large crowds
The state of Hawaii consisted of seven islands

To express customs and habitual actions
Ex.
the hiking club goes on a picnic every weekend
Many European hotels serve a Continental break-fast
The Thai of people eat a great deal of rice.

To make assertions(opinions) about present matters
Ex.
Their statements lack consistency
The milk tastes bitter
John is often careless in his work

This type of present consists of the present of verb be + (verb+ing)(am/is/are + present participle), it focuses on the actions that are in process or a situation presently continuing over a period of time.
uses
To express action in process at the moment of speaking
Ex .
you are learning English now
You are not swimming now
They are reading their books
Are you sleeping?

To describe a longer action in progress now
Ex.
I am studying to become a doctor
I am not studying to become a dentist
Are you working on any special projects at work?

To describe the near future
Ex.
I am meeting some friends after work
I am not going to the party tonight.
Is he visiting his parents next week?
Isn't he coming with us tonight?

To describe the repetition and irritation with always
Ex.
She is always coming to class late.
He is constantly talking.
I do not like them because they are always complaining

present perfect
FORM
Has/have + past participle

It indicates that the action is either complete up to or as of the present moment without indicating specific time.
It is not used to describe a specific event

uses
Unspecified time before now
Ex.
I have seen that movie twenty times
A: has there ever been a war in the united states?
B: yes,there has been a war in the united states.

Topic 1:Describing experiences
Ex.
I have been to France.
(this sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France.maybe you have been there once or several times.)
I have been to France three times.
(you can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.)
I have never been to France.
( this sentence means that you have not had the experience to go to France.)
A:have you ever met him?
B:no, I have not met him.

Topic2: Change's happening over a period of time
Ex.
you have grown since the last time I saw you.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

Topic 3: stating accomplishments of humanity and individuals, without mentioning specific time;-
Ex.
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases

Topic 4:to state expected actions that have no have happened yet;-
Ex.
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.

Topic 5: it is used to state several actions which have occurred in the past at different times, Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible
Ex.
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect
Without specifying the time of the action we can use the present perfect to state something that has happened at some point in life.
Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
Ex.
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week

NOTICE
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
I went to Mexico last year.
(I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.)
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
(I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.)

Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)
we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect
Ex.
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl

present perfect continuous
Form:
[has/have + been + present participle]

Positive
•I have been sleeping.
• You have been sleeping.
• We have been sleeping.
• They have been sleeping.
• He has been sleeping.
• She has been sleeping.
• It has been sleeping.


Negative
•I have not been sleeping.
• You have not been sleeping.
• We have not been sleeping.
• They have not been sleeping.
• He has not been sleeping.
• She has not been sleeping.
• It has not been sleeping.


Question
•Have I been sleeping?
•Have you been sleeping?
•Have we been sleeping?
•Have they been sleeping?
•Has he been sleeping?
•Has she been sleeping?
•Has it been sleeping?


USES
Duration from the Past Until Now
We use this to show that something started in the past and continuous up until now using durations such as: for five minutes, since Tuesday.
Ex.
They have been talking for the last hour.
She has been working at that company for three years.
What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
James has been teaching at the university since June.
We have been waiting here for over two hours!
Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

Recently, Lately
We use present perfect continuous without durations to give the tense a more general meaning by using 'lately' and 'recently'
Ex.
Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
She has been watching too much television lately.
Have you been exercising lately?
Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
Lisa has not been practicing her English.

IMPORTANT
Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently."
Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.
"Have you been feeling alright?", meaning that the persons seems sick or unhealthy.

Bibliography
"Verb Tense Tutorial." ENGLISH PAGE -. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014
Ross, Janet, and Gladys G. Doty. Writing English: A Composition Text in English as a Foreign Language. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. Print.
Quirk, Randolph, and Sidney Greenbaum. A University Grammar of English. Harlow: Longman, 1973. Print
O'sullivan, Neil, and Sidney Greenbaum. A University Grammar of English. Harlow: Longman, 2002. Print.
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs1.htm
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs7.htm
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs9.htm
"Britannica School." Britannica School. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.
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