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Transcript of ICM
different variations; Hindustani and Carnatic music each unique. History of Indian Music The Notation System Instruments Pakhawaj: Is a indian barrel shaped instrument. The pakhavaj has a low, mellow tone, very rich in harmonics. Thank you for listening!!!!! Saqib and Taran 1 1 Hindustani Hindustani classical music is a
subgenre of Indian classical
music and is played in North
Indian mainly. Other places
include: Pakistan, Bangladesh
and in a way, Nepal and
Afghanistan as well.
Performers with prestige
would have titles; Musims
being ustad and Hindus being
pandit. An aspect of Hindustani
is that it is to keep religious
neutrality, which is achieved by
either a pandit or ustad singing
and playing compositions for
the opposite's religious god(s). Carnatic Not much is known about the music in this time but a few instruments such as the bow-shaped or arched harp. These have been identified from the small terracotta figures and from the pictures on the seals that were likely to be used by merchants. This music was based on sacrifices to the gods. They structured the sacrifice. Singing and dancing was considered divine. Music was used mainly for two functions: to propitiate deities and to accompany sacrificial offerings. In this time, there was a special method of making music called pathya:
1) seven notes (saptaswara)
2) three basic locations for tone-production (sthanas)
3) four fundamental ways of empowering tonal arrangements (varnas)
4) two basic intonation modes (kakus)
5) six embellishments (alankaras)
6) six aspects (angas). Arada was the first sage to whom the laws of music were revealed; Saraswati was the goddess of music and learning;Tumburu was the first singer; and Bharata was the first to draw up rules for theatre, of which music was a major part. The tradition of Indian art music appeared in four kinds of performing spaces. The character of each of these spaces determined the volume, pitch and timbre of music. The courtyard of the temple allowed another kind of music-making. Yet another format that evolved in the temple space was the ghata-nibandhan. Temple-spaces have thus fostered art, folk, religious and popular music. A Purana traditionally contains five subjects. Into this core subject a Purana incorporates other religious accretions. Brihaddeshi (The Great Treatise on the Regional), by Matanga was the first work to describe music in the period after Bharata. Brihaddeshi is the first major and available text to describe the raga. It also introduced the notation (sargam) in the names of notes. Raga, which means passion, became a framework to create music based on a given set of notes and rhythmic patterns. The basic constituents of a raga can be written down. By using only these notes, by emphasizing certain degrees of the scale, and by going from note to note in ways characteristic to the raga, the performer sets out to create a mood or atmosphere (rasa) that is unique to the raga in question. In 1262, when he was nine years old, Amir Khusro began to compose poetry. He composed almost half a million verses. He is supposed to have enriched or invented qawali, qasida, qalbana, naqsh and many others forms of music. The zeelaph and sarparda ragas are also associated with Amir. The medieval age was characterised by an impressive and varied musical expression. There was an abundance of musical instruments. Music in India, and especially art music, went through a metamorphosis for four centuries from the sixteenth. This modern period saw an increasing number of musical works in Persian, Urdu and Hindi. All these tell us the story of how Hindustani Art Music evolved and took shape. In the early 20th century, two people revolutionised Indian music: Pandit Vishnu Narayana Bhatkhande V. D. Paluskar and Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar (1872-1931 AD) introduced the first music colleges. He gave an entirely new perspective to the education and propagation of music. It was his efforts that elevated music and musicians in the social hierarchy. Indian music has a
diversity of different
melodic modes and
performer using their unique style. Thaats 1 Raga A melodic mode that uses a scale of usually 5-7 tones or swaras ascending and descending.
From both southern and northern genres of the music, most ragas are developed by improvisation such as: Alap, which uses a slow-tempo gayaki that is improvised.
5 swara ragas are known as audava.
6 swara ragas are known as shaadava.
7 swara ragas are known as sampurna.
Vakra are 'crooked ragas because they do not have a proper asceending or descending order. Thaats are a series of seven pitches which organises the
Hindustani music structure. Sa
sa do re mi fa so la ti do ŚSruti commonly refers to musical pitch. It is the approximately a tonic in Western music. You get all the other notes from this. There are an infinite number of sounds falling within a scale (or raga) in Carnatic music, the number that can be distinguished by auditory perception is twenty-two . SRUTI Tati: Tati is a single stringed Naga traditional musical instrument invented and used by the Naga people since time immemorial.